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Pharmacy: Citing references

A guide to finding information in pharmacy. Includes links to key resources and sources of help.

A pile of books on a deskWhenever you refer to another person's work in your own essay, dissertation or article you must acknowledge them and give full details of your source. You risk being accused of plagiarism if you fail to do so.

For general information on referencing, including an explanation of different citation systems, and guidance on citing specific types of publication, see our Citing references guide.

For help with citing specific types of publication contact your subject librarian, details below.

For advice on using references in your work, and how to use them to support your arguments, consult the guidance on the Study Advice website or make an appointment with them.

Referencing styles used in Pharmacy

The School of Pharmacy recommend two different styles of referencing depending on the type of assignment: Harvard (a name-date style) and Vancouver (a numbered style). See the Department guide on the Student Briefcase in Blackboard, or the link below. See also the quick reference boxes below which include more detail than the guide.

This video gives an overview of why and how you should reference materials used in your assignments:

The next video gives tips on how to use references in your work to avoid being accused of plagiarism:

When you submit your work you will be asked to do so through the Turnitin similarity checker. This video explains what this does and how you can use it to improve your writing.

Vancouver referencing in Pharmacy - click on the tabs for guidance on specific publications

Vancouver is a numbered style. Each piece of work cited should have a unique number, assigned in order (your first reference is 1, your second is 2 etc.). References must be listed at the end of your document in numerical order based on the order of citation. If you cite a piece of work more than once, the same citation number should be used. 

In-text citations

When adding an in-text citation to your document you can write the number in brackets or as superscript. Whichever you choose, make sure that you are consistent throughout your work. For example:

Medical systems need to be carefully considered and designed to reduce the likelihood of medication errors (1).

or

Medical systems need to be carefully considered and designed to reduce the likelihood of medication errors1.

If you wish to cite more than one source in a sentence

Include the citation number for each piece of work. Use a hyphen to link consecutive numbers. For example:

There are many studies that have examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive impairment (1,3, 4-7, 9).

If the citation has two authors

List each author individually. If you are not including the authors' names in the text, the number alone is enough.

A recent study by Morbey and Smith (4) found that...

A recent study (4) found that...

If the citation has three or more authors

Use the first author's name followed by "et al.". Again, if you are not using the authors' names directly in the text, the citation number is enough. Note: you will need to include all the authors in the final reference list.

A recent study by Rang et al. (2) found that...

A recent study (2) found that...

Citing work by a company or organisation

Many works by organisations do not have individually named authors, and in many cases the 'author' will be an organisation or company such as Cancer Research UK or NICE. This is known as a corporate author. In Vancouver, this will look the same as any other type of reference. Note: in your final reference list, you don't need to use the surname, first name style – write the organisation name as it appears.

One in 20 people suffer from severe asthma (6).

If there is no named author

If no author is named on the item you are trying to reference, move the title to the start of the reference. Do not use Anon. or Anonymous unless the publication actually says that. Also think carefully about whether the source is suitable for use in your assignment, especially if it is a webpage.

If you have multiple papers by the same authors in the same year

As different articles will have different citation numbers, these are written as standard Vancouver references.

Smith and Jones (1)... and Smith and Jones (2).

Direct quotation

If directly quoting from a work, you need to use single quotation marks. You also need to include a page number in the in-text citation. For example:

More recently, a paper by Walker et al. (3) stated that 'student pharmacists are valuable and important to practice model transformation' (p.47).

If you are using a paper cited by another author

You need to include both authors' names in the body of your text to show that you have not read the original article.

According to Ahmed as cited by Jones (5)...

This type of referencing is known as secondary referencing and should be avoided wherever possible, as the author citing the work may have their own bias or misinterpretation.  It is better to seek out the original reference (in this case, Ahmed’s) and cite it directly if it is useful. In the final reference list, you should only include the reference you have read yourself. See further guidance on secondary referencing below.

Additional guidance

See the following guide for extra guidance and examples:

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) in the format Surname Initials
  • Title of book
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Year

Use the punctuation shown in this example.

Example:

  1. Ritter JM, Flower RJ, Henderson G, Loke YK, MacEwan D, Rang HP. Rang and Dale's pharmacology. 9th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2020.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Chapter author(s) in the format Surname Initials
  • Title of chapter, followed by In:
  • Editor(s) of the book followed by , editors
  • Title of book
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Year
  • Page numbers of the chapter preceded by p.

Use the punctuation shown in the example.

Example:

  1. Singh H, Khurana LK, Singh R. Pharmaceutical development. In: Vohora D, Singh G, editors. Pharmaceutical medicine and translational clinical research. London: Academic Press; 2018. p.33-46.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Article author(s) in the format Surname Initials (no punctuation). You will need to include all the authors.
  • Title of article
  • Journal title
  • Year
  • Volume number
  • Issue number in brackets (where present)
  • Page numbers or reference number for online only articles

Use the punctuation shown in the examples.

Examples:

  1. Ferner RE. An agenda for UK clinical pharmacology: medication errors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2012; 73(6): 912-916.
  2. Weingart SN, Zhang L, Sweeney M, Hassett M. Chemotherapy medication errors. The Lancet Oncology. 2018; 19(4): e191-e199.
  3. Fahrenkopf AM, Sectish TC, Barger LK, Sharek PJ, Lewin D, Chiang VW, Edwards S, Wiedermann BL, Landrigan CP. Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008; 336(7642): 488-491.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s), if there isn't a person named, use the organisation name instead
  • Title of page/document
  • Year created/updated (or n.d. if no date is given)
  • Web link preceeded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the punctuation shown in the examples.

Examples:

  1. DrugBank. Ranitidine. 2019. URL: https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00863 [28 November 2019]
  2. IUPHAR/BPS. Ibuprofen. 2019. URL: https://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=2713 [20 November 2019]
  3. Sport For All. Trampolining for the elderly. (n.d.). URL: http://www.sportforall/trampolining/elderly [12 December 2019].
Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Joint Formulary Committee
  • Title - British National Formulary (BNF)
  • Edition
  • Place of publication: London
  • Publisher: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press
  • Year

Use the punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (BNF). 78. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press; 2019.
Online version (on MedicinesComplete)

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Joint Formulary Committee
  • Title - British National Formulary (BNF)
  • Update date
  • Web link for MedicinesComplete https://www.medicinescomplete.com preceeded by URL:
  • Date you accessed it

Use the punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (BNF). 12 January 2021. URL: https://www.medicinescomplete.com [28 January 2021]
Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s): Pediatric Formulary Committee
  • Title: BNF for children
  • Edition
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Year

Use the punctuation shown in this example. Make sure you check the date and edition of the version you are using.

  1. Pediatric Formulary Committee. BNF for children. 2018-2019 ed. London: BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press and RCPCH Publications; 2018.
Online version (on MedicinesComplete)

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s): Pediatric Formulary Committee
  • Title: BNF for children
  • Update date
  • Web link for MedicinesComplete https://www.medicinescomplete.com preceeded by URL:
  • Date you accessed it

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in the example. Make sure you check the date and edition (month and year) of the version you are using.

  1. Pediatric Formulary Committee. BNF for children. 12 January 2021. URL: http://www.medicinescomplete.com [6 February 2021].
Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author: British Pharmacopoeia Commission
  • Title of book: British Pharmacopoeia
  • Edition
  • Place of publication: London
  • Publisher: HMSO
  • Year

Use the punctuation shown in this example:

  1. British Pharmacopoeia Commission. British Pharmacopoeia 2020. London: HMSO; 2019.
Online version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author: British Pharmacopoeia Commission
  • Title of book: British Pharmacopoeia
  • Year and version
  • Web link preceeded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the punctuation shown in this example:

  1. British Pharmacopoeia Commission. British Pharmacopoeia. 2021 Ph. Eur. 10.3 update. URL: https://www.pharmacopoeia.com [26 January 2021]

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE]
  • Title of page/document including reference number in square brackets
  • Year created/updated
  • Web link preceeded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the punctuation shown in this example:

  1. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE]. Depression in adults: recognition and management [CG90]. 2009. URL: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg90 [16 January 2021].

Local guidelines, although authored by individuals, should be ratified by a designated committee therefore are the work of the organisation.

Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - organisation name
  • Title of policy
  • Version
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher (usually the same as the author)
  • Year

Use the punctuation shown in this example.

  1. Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust. Non-medical prescribing policy. Version 3. London: Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust; 2016.
Online version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - organisation name
  • Title of policy
  • Version
  • Year
  • Web link preceeded by URL
  • Date accessed

Use the punctuation shown in this example.

  1. North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network. Prescribing guidance. Version 12. 2016. URL: https://www.ncl-mon.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/pg_ncl_prescribing_guidance.pdf [9 February 2021]

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - drug company who wrote the SmPC
  • Title followed by Electronic Medicines Compendium
  • Year info updated on EMC
  • Web link preceeded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example.

  1. Accord-UK Ltd. Aciclovir 400mg tablets summary of product characteristics. Electronic Medicines Compendium. 2020. URL: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/5692/smpc [6 January 2020].

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) in the format Surname, Initials
  • Title of review
  • Database name (i.e. organisation)
  • Issue number
  • Report number
  • Year

Use the punctuation shown in this example.

  1. Crowe L, Chang A, Wallace K. Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 8.  Art. No.: CD005586. 2016.

Although most references refer to the published paper as this details the results of the clinical trial, depending on the context of what you write you may need to reference the clinical trial itself.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - primary contact for the trial
  • Title of trial
  • Year
  • Database/registry name
  • DOI
  • Web link preceded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Morrow S. Implementing improved asthma self-management as routine. 2019. ISRCTN: DOI 110.1186/ISRCTN15448074. URL: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN15448074 [6 January 2021].

Where possible, you should always try to refer to the original or a published source but there may be information on a presentation or a document posted on Blackboard you wish to reference.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Lecturer's name in the format Surname, Initials
  • Title of document/presentation as given on Blackboard (if a Powerpoint put the word 'slides' at the end of the title)
  • Blackboard site for [insert name of module] (Session dates), 
  • Web address preceded by 'URL: '
  • Date you accessed it

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example:

Grant D. Understanding medical notes slides. Blackboard site for Delivering Pharmacy Services (20/21). URL: hhttps://www.bb.reading.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-5231967-dt-content-rid-19167170_2/xid-19167170_2 [11 October 2020].

Harvard referencing in Pharmacy - click on the tabs for guidance on specific publications

The Harvard style is an author-date system. In-text citations include the author and year of the reference. The reference list at the end must be in alphabetical order by the author's surname.

In-text citations

For the Harvard style, your in-text citation should include:

  • The author of the cited work
  • The year of publication of the cited work.

There are two ways of including an in-text citation and you can use both depending on how you want to structure each sentence. You can include the citation with the author’s surname and date in brackets at the end of the sentence:

Medical systems need to be carefully considered and designed to reduce the likelihood of medication errors (Ferner, 2012).

Or, you can include the author’s surname as part of your sentence, in which case only the date is in brackets:

More recently, a paper by Ferner (2012) has suggested that...

Citing more than one source in a sentence

List the sources chronologically, separated by semi-colons.

There are many studies that have examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive impairment (Brown, 2009; Smith, 2012; Hussein et al., 2017).

If the citation has two authors

List both authors each time you reference the work.

A recent study by Morbey and Smith (2018) found that...

It has been shown previously (Morbey and Smith, 2018) that....

If the citation has three or more authors

Use the first author's name followed by "et al.". Note: you will need to include all authors in the final reference list.

A recent study by Rang et al. (2015) found that...

It has been shown previously (Rang et al., 2015) that....

If you have multiple papers by the same authors in the same year

Differentiate them using letters.

Smith and Jones (2001a)... and Smith and Jones (2001b).

Citing work by a company or organisation

Many works by organisations do not have individually named authors. In this case, you can use the name of the organisation or company, such as Cancer Research UK or NICE, as the author. This is known as a corporate author. Note: in your final reference list, don't use the surname, first name style – write the organisation name as it appears.

1 in 20 people suffer from severe asthma (Asthma UK, 2015).

If there is no named author

If no author is named on the item you are trying to reference use Anon in place of the author. Also think carefully about whether the source is suitable for use in your assignment, especially if it is a webpage.

(Anon, 2020)

Direct quotation

If directly quoting from a work, you need to use single quotation marks. You also need to include a page number in the in-text citation. For example:

More recently, a paper by Walker et al. (2015) stated that 'student pharmacists are valuable and important to practice model transformation' (p.47).

If you are using a paper cited by another author

You must include both authors, to show that you have not read the original article.

According to Ahmed (2014, as cited by Jones, 2016)...

This type of referencing is known as secondary referencing and should be avoided wherever possible, as the author citing the work may bring their own bias or misinterpretation. It is better to seek out the original reference (in this case, Ahmed’s) and cite it directly if it is useful. In the final reference list, you should only include the reference you have read yourself. See further guidance on secondary referencing below.

Additional guidance

See our general guide to citing references for more help and examples in the Harvard style:

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) in the format Surname Initials
  • Year in brackets
  • Title of book
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example.

Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J., Henderson, G., Loke, Y.K., MacEwan, D. & Rang, H.P. (2020). Rang and Dale's pharmacology. 9th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Chapter author(s) in the format Surname Initials
  • Year in brackets
  • Title of chapter, followed by In:
  • Editor(s) of the book followed by , (eds.)
  • Title of book
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Page numbers of the chapter preceded by p.

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in the example.

Example:

Singh, H., Khurana, L.K. and Singh, R. (2018). Pharmaceutical development. In: Vohora, D. & Singh, G. (eds.) Pharmaceutical medicine and translational clinical research. London: Academic Press, p.33-46.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Article author(s) in the format Surname Initials (no punctuation). You will need to include all the authors.
  • Year
  • Title of article
  • Journal title
  • Volume number
  • Issue number in brackets (where present)
  • Page numbers or reference number for online only articles

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in the examples.

Examples:

Fahrenkopf, A.M., Sectish, T.C., Barger, L.K., Sharek, P.J., Lewin, D., Chiang, V.W., Edwards, S., Wiedermann, B.L. & Landrigan, C.P. (2008) Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study. BMJ336(7642), 488-491.

Ferner, R.E. (2012). An agenda for UK clinical pharmacology: medication errors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 73(6), 912-916.

Weingart, S.N., Zhang, L., Sweeney, M, & Hassett, M. (2018) Chemotherapy medication errors. The Lancet Oncology, 19(4), e191-e199.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s), if there isn't a person named, use the organisation name instead
  • Year created/updated (or n.d. if no date given)
  • Title of page/document
  • Web link preceeded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in these examples:

DrugBank. (2019). Ranitidine. URL: https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00863 [28 November 2019]

IUPHAR/BPS. (2019). Ibuprofen. URL: https://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=2713 [20 November 2019]

Sport For All. (n.d.). Trampolining for the elderly. URL: http://www.sportforall/trampolining/elderly [12 December 2019].

Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Joint Formulary Committee
  • Year
  • Title - British National Formulary (BNF)
  • Edition
  • Place of publication: London
  • Publisher: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example:

Joint Formulary Committee. (2019). British National Formulary (BNF). 78. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press.

Online version (on MedicinesComplete)

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Joint Formulary Committee
  • Year
  • Title - British National Formulary (BNF)
  • Update date
  • Web link for MedicinesComplete https://www.medicinescomplete.com preceeded by URL:
  • Date you accessed it

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example:

Joint Formulary Committee. (2021). British National Formulary (BNF). 12 January 2021. URL: https://www.medicinescomplete.com [28 January 2021]

Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s): Pediatric Formulary Committee
  • Year
  • Title: BNF for children
  • Edition
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example. Make sure you check the date and edition of the version you are using.

Pediatric Formulary Committee. (2018). BNF for children. 2018-2019 ed. London: BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press and RCPCH Publications.

Online version (on MedicinesComplete)

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s): Pediatric Formulary Committee
  • Year
  • Title: BNF for children
  • Update date
  • Web link for MedicinesComplete https://www.medicinescomplete.com preceeded by URL:
  • Date you accessed it

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in the example. Make sure you check the date and edition (month and year) of the version you are using.

Pediatric Formulary Committee. (2021) BNF for children. 12 January 2021. URL: http://www.medicinescomplete.com [6 February 2021].

Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author: British Pharmacopoeia Commission
  • Year
  • Title of book: British Pharmacopoeia
  • Edition
  • Place of publication: London
  • Publisher: HMSO

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example:

British Pharmacopoeia Commission. (2019). British Pharmacopoeia. 2020. London: HMSO.

Online version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author: British Pharmacopoeia Commission
  • Year
  • Title: British Pharmacopoeia
  • Version
  • Web link preceeded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example:

British Pharmacopoeia Commission. (2021) British Pharmacopoeia. Ph. Eur. 10.3 update. URL: https://www.pharmacopoeia.com [26 January 2021]

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE]
  • Year created/updated
  • Title of page/document including reference number in square brackets
  • Web link preceeded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example:

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE]. (2009). Depression in adults: recognition and management [CG90]. URL: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg90 [16 July 2020].

Local guidelines, although authored by individuals, should be ratified by a designated committee therefore are the work of the organisation.

Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - organisation name
  • Year
  • Title of policy
  • Version
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher (usually the same as the author)

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example.

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust. (2016) Non-medical prescribing policy. Version 3. London: Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust.

Online version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - organisation name
  • Year
  • Title of policy
  • Version
  • Web link preceeded by URL
  • Date accessed

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example.

North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network. (2016) Prescribing guidance. Version 12. URL: https://www.ncl-mon.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/pg_ncl_prescribing_guidance.pdf [9 February 2021]

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - drug company who wrote the SmPC
  • Year info updated on EMC
  • Title followed by Electronic Medicines Compendium
  • Web link preceeded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example.

Accord-UK Ltd. (2020) Aciclovir 400mg tablets summary of product characteristics. Electronic Medicines Compendium. URL: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/5692/smpc [6 January 2020].

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) in the format Surname, Initials
  • Year
  • Title of review
  • Database name (i.e. organisation)
  • Issue number
  • Report number

Use the punctuation shown in this example.

Crowe, L., Chang, A., and Wallace, K. (2016) Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 8.  Art. No.: CD005586. 

Although most references refer to the published paper as this details the results of the clinical trial, depending on the context of what you write you may need to reference the clinical trial itself.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - primary contact for the trial
  • Year
  • Title of trial
  • Database/registry name
  • DOI
  • Web link preceded by URL:
  • Date you looked at the information

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Morrow, S. (2019) Implementing improved asthma self-management as routine. ISRCTN: DOI 110.1186/ISRCTN15448074. URL: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN15448074 [6 January 2021].

Where possible, you should always try to refer to the original or a published source but there may be information on a presentation or a document posted on Blackboard you wish to reference.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Lecturer's name in the format Surname, Initials
  • Year in brackets
  • Title of document/presentation as given on Blackboard (if a Powerpoint put the word 'slides' at the end of the title)
  • Blackboard site for [insert name of module] (Session dates)
  • Web address preceded by 'URL: '
  • Date you accessed it

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example:

Grant, D. (2020). Understanding medical notes slides. Blackboard site for Delivering Pharmacy Services (20/21). URL: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-5231967-dt-content-rid-19167170_2/xid-19167170_2 [11 October 2020].

Secondary referencing (citing a source you have read about in a different source)

A secondary reference is used when you are referring to a source which you have not read yourself, but have read about in another source. Where possible, you should always try to read the original of anything you wish to refer to; otherwise you are relying on the author who cited the reference to have interpreted it correctly and not taken it out of context. Use the reference list at the end of the source you are reading to find details of the reference and search for it using the search boxes below.

Find books using the Enterprise catalogue

Just type in the first author's surname and a few words from the title.

Find journal articles using Summon

Just type in the first author's surname and first part of the article title.

If you can't get hold of the original source you'll need to do a secondary reference and you should make clear that you are not using the original source. Only include the source you have used in your list of references following the guidance above on citing that type of publication.

Vancouver example

In-text citation:

According to France as cited by Weingart et al. (4), hospitals use internal reporting procedures to identify...

Reference:

4. Weingart, SN, Zhang L, Sweeney M, Hassett M. Chemotherapy medication errors. The Lancet Oncology, 2018; 19(4): e191-e199.

Harvard example

In-text citation:

According to France (2003, as cited by Weingart et al., 2018), hospitals use internal reporting procedures to identify...

Reference: 

Weingart, S.N., Zhang, L., Sweeney, M, & Hassett, M. (2018) Chemotherapy medication errors. The Lancet Oncology19(4), e191-e199.

Quotes and copying information

  • When taking information from a reference source which you are not putting into your own words i.e. copying and pasting you need to put quotes around the words to indicate that it is not your own work
  • Students are expected to put the majority of information into their own words to demonstrate their understanding and independent thought - the amount of information in quotes should therefore be minimal
  • Quotes should be reserved for situations where no alternative wording is possible and/or where it is not appropriate (e.g. quoting a standard or particular statement which supports your argument)
Direct quote (avoid unless necessary)
  • Wenger (1998, p181) argues that 'Engagement, imagination and alignment each create relations of belonging'.
Paraphrase
  • The focus of Wenger's discussion is on the way that different aspects come together to build notions of identity (Wenger, 1998).
Indirect mention
  • Theorists have considered the impact of a variety of circumstances on the creation and expansion of identity (Wenger, 1998; Lee, 2013; Morton and Grainger, 2009).

Avoid quoting large blocks of text:

The NICE guidance for hypertension (NICE, 2019) states the following:

'Beta-blockers are not a preferred initial therapy for hypertension. However, beta-blockers may be considered in younger people, particularly:

  • those with an intolerance or contraindication to ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists or
  • women of child-bearing potential or
  • people with evidence of increased sympathetic drive'

Instead this could be paraphrased as:

NICE no longer recommend beta-blockers to be used as initial therapy for hypertension, although it is recognised that there may be circumstances in which younger patients may benefit from beta-blockers (NICE, 2019).  In my practice I may review younger patients, therefore I will consider the recommendations from NICE on appropriate prescribing of beta-blockers, for example women of child-bearing age, patients with increased sympathetic drive or unable to take ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Citing images including charts, diagrams and tables

Images, graphs, tables, charts and diagrams that you have used from books, websites and other texts should be referenced in the same way that you would any other material.

A table showing the figure number, title and citation underneath.Give the image a caption, with a figure number, title and a citation (name-year or number depending on the style you are using). The image on the right shows how this would look if you were referencing in Harvard style.

When you refer to it in your writing, use the figure number. Give a full citation in the bibliography or reference list for the source of the image.

Referring to figures in a sentence:

There are some interesting variations in recommended vitamin intakes between the USA, Germany, UK and The Netherlands (see Figure 4).

Full details for reference list (Harvard style):

Troesch, B., Hoeft, B., McBurney, M., Eggersdorfer, M. and Weber, P. (2012) Dietary surveys indicate vitamin intakes below recommendations are common in representative Western countries. British Journal of Nutrition, 108(4), 692–698. 

 

Decorative images

If the image is purely decorative you should still acknowledge the creator and source but there is no need to include a full reference.

See the example on the right which includes the caption:
'Image: [creator] via [website image captured from]'.

If it is a picture you have taken use this format:

'Image by author'.

Compiling your own table from multiple sources

If you are taking information from multiple sources and compiling your own table you still need to acknowledge those sources. 

The following link shows two ways of doing this. Although this is a guide to using the APA style the approaches can be adapted for use with Harvard and Vancouver.

Your Pharmacy librarian

Jackie Skinner's picture
Jackie Skinner
Contact:
Please contact me if you have a query or need advice on literature searching, accessing resources, referencing or using EndNote/Mendeley.

Email me, or make an appointment using the 'book now' button above. At the moment all appointments will take place online via MS Teams.

I also hold a weekly online drop-in on Tuesdays 13:00-14:00. See the drop-in box on this page.
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EndNote

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Using a reference management system is vital when you do your final year projects and useful for creating accurate references for other assignments. EndNote is one such system which can be used to store references, and then insert the citation in your Word document, automatically building the bibliography for you in the correct style.

There are custom EndNote styles available in EndNote Online which match the Pharmacy referencing requirements:

  • Harvard for Reading
  • Vancouver for Reading
  • Vancouver for Reading Footnote

Find out more in the EndNote Online page in this guide: