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There is a huge amount of information on the Internet but the quality is variable. Some reliable sources are suggested below.
See also the tips and suggestions to help you evaluate what's good and what's not!
Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology
The Australian government meteorological office provides weather forecasts and warnings, climate information and hydrological services, as well as access to weather and climate charts, radar and satellite images. There is also a link to the National Meteorological Library catalogue.
Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA) Archive
The CEDA Archive covers climate, composition, observations and NWP data for the UK, as well as various earth observation datasets, including airborne and satellite data and imagery. The functions of the former British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and the NERC Earth Observation Data Centre (NEODC) were amalgamated into the CEDA Archive in November 2016.
Climate change 2013: the physical science basis
Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Full text.
IPCC Data Distribution Centre
Provides climate, socio-economic and environmental data, both from the past and also in scenarios projected into the future. Technical guidelines on the selection and use of different types of data and scenarios in research and assessment are also provided.
European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMRWF)
This site holds information about the Centre's research, publications and avaiable jobs. Current forecasts, climate reanalyses and specific datasets are available from the forecasts section.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
NOAA is a US government organisation with responsibility for assessment, prediction and stewardship of skies and seas. Its National Weather Service provides forecasts and dangerous weather warnings. The NOAA web site hosts many data and research centres, including National Hurricane Center / Tropical Prediction Center; NOAA Climate Analysis Branch; National Snow and Ice Data Center and Space Weather Prediction Center. The NOAA Central Library lists a large range of resources and a link to WINDandSEA: The Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences Internet Guide.
UK Meteorological Office
The web site of the Met Office is a prime source for weather-related information. Site content includes links to other weather sites on the web, current up-to-date weather details, research, satellite imagery and a comprehensive library service.
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
A United Nations specialist agency, the web site of the WMO has information on research news and developments, publications, major issues and current information about global weather.
General meteorology related sites
Forecasters' Reference Book 1997 | Met Office
Available through the Meteorological Office archive site.
Sourcebook to the Forecasters' Reference Book | Met Office
The Source Book provides an erudite account of techniques, alternatives and limitations to the range of forecasting techniques describes in the Forecasters' Reference Book. Available on the Meteorological Office archive site.
Climate of the interior west: climate glossaries and weather tools
A list of online glossaries giving explanations of climate related terms, includes a weather calculator and units converter. Page is maintained by the NOAA Climate Analysis Branch.
El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) information
Information about the current conditions of the tropical Pacific (including El Niño indices) and El Niño Forecasts. There is also a collection of other ENSO related web links. Hosted by the NOAA Climate Analysis Branch.
Galaxy - Meteorology
Galaxy is a subject based searchable Internet directory compiled by human Internet Librarians. The meteorology page contains an organised list of links divided into categories such as: atmospheric chemistry, climate change and climate prediction, paleoclimatology and more. See also subject pages on earth science, mathematics and physics.
This site contains hundreds of images on geoscience themes, including climate, atmospheric sciences, hydrology and ocean sciences. As the European Geosciences Union’s online open access geosciences image repository, the material posted is mostly copyrighted under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. This means that the material can be copied for presentations, posters etc., but must be credited to the author
National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
Part of NOAA, formerly the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Maintains the world's largest climate data archive and provides climatological services and data to the United States and users worldwide. "Records in the archive range from paleoclimatology data to centuries-old journals to data less than an hour old. The Center's mission is to preserve these data and make them available to the public, business, industry, government, and researchers."
National Hurricane Center
The National Hurricane Center (in the USA) maintains a continuous watch on tropical cyclones over the Atlantic, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Eastern Pacific. This site offers satellite imagery and details of historic tropical cyclones in their data archive - go to the tools & data section.
SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is a digital library portal for researchers in astronomy and physics. It consists of three bibliographic databases: astronomy and astrophysics; physics; and arXiv e-prints. This site is hosted by the School of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Nottingham.
UK Solar System Data Centre (UKSSDC)
Provides access to archives of data from the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and Earth's solar environment. Includes the World Data Centre for Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Solar Archives; and the Virtual Library of Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Chemistry.
Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO)
TORRO is a British based privately supported research body. The web site contains details about TORRO news, conferences, research interests and articles and publishes an newsletter detailing monthly severe weather events.
Earth: a visualization of global weather conditions
Digital visualization of global weather conditions (wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc.), ocean surface currents, ocean waves (height), water temperatures, aurora, aerosols/chemicals (dust extinction, particulate matter, sulphur, carbon, etc), different height intervals, different projections, data taken from GFS, OSCAR, WAVEWATCH II, OVATION, CAMS and others, updated every 30 minutes to five days.
KNMI Climate Explorer
A web application to analyse climate data statistically.
Contains over 85,000 records of world climate data (historical weather averages) from a wide range of sources. Currently, all placenames and countries are shown with the names they had at the time the data was recorded. All data comes from public domain sources
International cloud atlas
2017 edition, produced by the World Meteorological Organization.
National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS)
NCAS is one of the Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) research centres. The Centre increases knowledge of key environmental issues including: climate change, weather processes and atmospheric composition including air quality.
UK-AIR, Air Quality Information Resource
Developed on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), this site provides in-depth information on air quality and air pollution in the UK. A range of information is available, including the latest pollution levels, pollution forecast information, a data archive, and details of the various monitoring networks.
University of Wyoming, Department of Atmospheric Sciences
The Department's weather page links to global surface observations. There is also US meteorological information, including surface maps, frontal analyses and forecasts, daily climate maps and meteorological buoys.
A German language site with an extensive collection of data and charts from various meteorological services. Data includes current observations, forecasts and analyses with some archives extending back 100 years. Coverage is good for Germany and much of northern Europe. There are charts of 30 year averages for world temperature, radiation and precipitation. The site can be run through Internet browser translation functions.
Tips on evaluating websites
Before believing the information given on a web site, or quoting it in your essay or project, think about the following:
- Who is responsible for the page/site?
- Is it a reliable organisation (eg a well known university) or a subject expert?
- Can you trust them?
Accuracy and reliability
- Is the information correct?
- Is the grammar and spelling correct?
- Is it complete, or are they just giving one point of view?
- Do they have their own agenda eg political organisations?
- Is the information fact or opinion?
- Can you tell how up-to-date it is?
- Is it regularly updated?
- You don't want to quote out-of-date information
Audience / relevance
- Is the information of the right level to be quoted in your project? If it is aimed at the general public or school children it might not be!
- Is the site well structured and easy to navigate?
- Are the links from the page up-to-date and valid?
- If it is well designed and maintained then you can feel more confident about the information it provides
British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC)
National facility for preserving and distributing data concerning the marine environment, including biological, chemical, physical and geophysical data.
Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)
GOOS is a permanent global system for observations, modelling and analysis of marine and ocean variables to support operational ocean services worldwide. GOOS provides accurate descriptions of the present state of the oceans, including living resources; continuous forecasts of the future conditions of the sea for as far ahead as possible, and the basis for forecasts of climate change.
IODE Ocean Data Portal (ODP)
The International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) programme of IOC UNESCO has established th ODP to facilitate seamless access to marine data/services and to promote the exchange and dissemination of marine data and services. it provides a "one-stop shop" to oceanographic data.
National Oceanography Centre (NOC)
NOC (part of Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)) undertakes integrated ocean research and technology development from the coast to the deep ocean. It provides long-term marine science capability, including sustained ocean observing, mapping and survey; data management, and scientific advice. It combines the NERC-managed activity at Liverpool’s former Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory and the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton.
Ocean Carbon Data System (OCADS)
Formerly CDIAC-Oceans. Project located within the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), hosting and providing access for ocean carbon data collected from around the world.
British Antarctic Survey (BAS)
The British Antarctic Survey aims to undertake world-class research into the Antarctic and related regions. This site outlines their research areas and holds careers information, as well as information about Antarctica and living in the Antarctic.
Climate change: a summary of the science
This guide by the Royal Society from 2010 summarises scientific evidence and indicates areas of debate and uncertainty as well as where the science is well established.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The role of the IPCC is to assess the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change. The site contains the panel's activities and reports.
NASA Ozone and Air Quality
NASA provide the results and ongoing data studies for the study of ozone and other gases, aerosols, radiances and ultraviolet radiation, and what has been learned about atmospheric pollution and air quality from the international science missions making these measurements.
Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research
The Centre brings together scientists, economists, engineers and social scientists who are working to develop sustainable responses to climate change.
Environmental Systems Science Data Infrastructure for a Virtual Ecosystem (ESS-DIVE)
New data archive for Earth and environmental science data, run by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Includes data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).
Organisations & institutions
American Meteorological Society
The AMS is the world’s largest scientific society for the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences. The web site provides information on membership, and allows AMS meetings and conferences to be searched online by keyword. It also includes a link to The Front Page, a blog about atmospheric scientific research and current atmospheric events, written by the editors of the Bulletin of the AMS.
Climatological Observers Link (COL)
This is the amateur meteorologists and enthusiasts' weather observer network for the UK. The website links to UK weather data, including climatological averages, past data and a monthly weather diary.
Royal Meteorological Society
The British learned and professional society for weather and climate. Gives information about membership, also contains up-to-date news about the Society's activities and has details about its journals.