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CBM & FBM: support for your undergraduate dissertation

A dissertation guide for Part 3 Consumer Behaviour & Marketing and Food Business & Marketing students in the School of Agriculture, Policy and Development


Citation examples

This page lists the details you will need to include when writing citations for various types of source material, with examples of formatted citations in a version of Harvard style - which is the style used in APD.

  • Brief refers to the way that a work would be cited either in the body of the text when using Harvard style.
  • Full refers to the way it would be cited in a bibliography or reference list when using Harvard style.


If the source you want to cite is not listed here, see Writing citations for tips on how to cite unusual sources. If you're still not sure, you could ask your Liaison Librarian.

The top five: 1. Book

Include information on editions and number of volumes if appropriate.

Full: Sethna, Z. and Blythe, J. (2019). Consumer Behaviour. 4th ed. London: Sage.

Brief: (Sethna and Blythe, 2019)

Full: Wright, S. and McCrea, D.  eds. (2007). The Handbook of Organic and Fair Trade Food Marketing. Oxford: Blackwell.

Brief: (Wright and McCrea, 2007)

The top five: 2. Journal article

Print copies of journal articles:

Include the page extent of the whole article when writing your full citation, not just the pages you have referred to.

Full: Casillas, E. (2020). Strategies to improve food marketing to children. Marketing Today. 49, 19-26.

Brief: (Casillas, 2020)

If there are more than three authors, for the brief citation you can just state the first author, followed by et al.

Full: Fuller, D., Meredith, C., Skinner, D., Ward, N., Harbord, C., Rimpilainen, S., and Thomas, A. (2017). Ethical objections to Fair Trade products: A review. Journal of Business Ethics, 12 (3), 268-278.

Brief: (Fuller et al., 2017)

Print journals accessed online:

If you access a journal article online (e.g. through SUMMON), but it is also available in print, use the same format for citation as above.

Online journals:

If the journal is ONLY available online, you should include the URL. Note that online-only journal articles may not have page numbers:

Full: Moynihan, R. (2004). The intangible magic of celebrity marketing. PLoS Med 1(2): e42. Online at https://doi,org/10.137/journal.pmed.0010042. accessed 23 March 2020

Brief: (Moynihan, 2004) 

The top five: 3. Chapter in an edited collection

Include the page extent of the whole chapter when writing your full citation, not just the pages you have referred to.

Full: Allen, H. and Gershuny, J. (2009). Marketing strategies used by UK supermarkets. In R. Berthoud and J. Gershuny (eds.). Marketing systems in the United Kingdom Food Sector. Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 25-37.

Brief: (Allen and Gershuny, 2009)

The top five: 4. Website

Include the date accessed when you write your full citation.

If there is no named author, use whoever has responsibility for the webpage (e.g. an organisation, government department, or company).

You may be able to find a date by scrolling to the bottom of the page, but if there is none, use n.d. for not dated.

Full: Mintel. (2020). Online Grocery Retailing - UK - March 2020. Online at, accessed 25 May 2020.

Brief: (Mintel, 2020)


Full: American Psychological Association. (2010). The impact of food advertising on childhood obesity. Online at, accessed 12 May 2020

Brief: (American Psychological Association, 2010)


Full: Food for all. (n.d.). Who eats the food?. Online at http://www.foodforall/whoeats/elder, accessed 12 April 2020.

Brief: (Food for all, n.d.)

Have a look at this Study Advice video tutorial (the link will take you to an external website):

The top five: 5. A cited source

A cited source is when the author of the text you are reading quotes someone else, and you want to use the quote that they use in your work.

If possible, you should always try to read the original of anything you wish to refer to. Otherwise you are relying on the author who cited the reference to have interpreted it correctly and not taken it out of context.

If you do read the original, you should include a citation to both sources in your bibliography or reference list, and your brief citation should cite both texts:

Full: Smith, A.E. (1998). How Marketing works. London: Academic Press.

Full: Chang, I. C. L. (1952) Marketing and Advertising to everyone. Journal of  Business, 29, 334-378.

Brief: (Chang, 1952. Also cited in Smith, 1998.)

If you cannot read the original, you should only list the source you have actually read in your bibliography or reference list:

Full:   Smith, A.E. (1998). How Marketing works. London: Academic Press.

Brief: (Chang, 1952 cited in Smith, 1998.)