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English language and applied linguistics: Citing references

A guide to finding information in English language and applied linguistics. Includes links to key resources and sources of help.

Citation style used by DELAL

The Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics uses the APA 7th (American Psychological Association) referencing style.

Whenever you refer to another person's work in your own writing you must acknowledge them and give full details of your source - you risk being accused of plagiarism if you fail to do so. This includes if you quote them, or just discuss an idea you read about in their work in your own words.

APA 7th (American Psychological Association)

APA referencing is a variant on Harvard style. Many of the conventions are the same, with brief author-date citations in brackets in the body of the text and full citations in the reference list. It is usual to include a reference list only rather than a bibliography in APA style. Citations for websites are also slightly different, with no need to include an access or retrieval date unless the page content is likely to change over time.

Where to find guidance on APA 7th referencing

First, refer to your Department's referencing guide linked above. You will find additional examples and explanations in the APA Publication manual below, and further examples of specific references e.g. government publications using the 'Cite them Right' guide or websites linked below. If you can't find the answer in either of the guides below, please speak to your Academic Liaison Librarian.

Additional examples


EndNote logoWhen you do your dissertation you could consider using EndNote to manage your references. This bibliographic management package can be used to store references, and then insert the citation in your Word document, automatically building the bibliography for you in the correct style.

Find out more on our EndNote webpages:

For information on other options for electronic management of your references see our guide to Managing references:

Get help from your librarian

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Natalie Guest
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Get my help with finding relevant books and articles for your research, help with accessing library materials and collections, referencing and reference management software.

Email me with your question or book an appointment

0118 3783415

Further help

For help with citing specific types of publication contact your subject librarian.

For advice on using references in your work, and how to use them to support your arguments, consult the guidance on the Study Advice website or make an appointment with them.