Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Physician Associates: Citing references

A guide to finding information for Physician Associate students. Includes links to key resources and sources of help.

Changes to the citation styles used from summer 2022

From August 2022 a new version of the Harvard and Vancouver styles has been adopted. We are now closely following the guidance given in the 'Cite Them Right' 12th edition book. All the guidance and examples have been updated below. If you are already familiar with old styles this summary of the differences should help you adapt to the new versions. Most changes apply to online resources.

Quick links to referencing guidance

General guidance on referencing

General guidance on which styles to use in your assignments.

Video guides

Watch these videos for an introduction to referencing in the correct style and tips on avoiding plagiarism.

Harvard referencing

Guidance on using the name-year Harvard referencing style.

Vancouver referencing

Guidance on using the numbered Vancouver style of referencing.

Secondary referencing

Guidance on citing a source you have read about in another source (to be avoided if possible!)

Citing images, tables, diagrams, charts

Referencing visual elements taken from other sources.

General guidance on referencing

Whenever you refer to another person's work in your own essay, dissertation or article you must acknowledge them and give full details of your source. You risk being accused of plagiarism if you fail to do so. See the video on Avoiding unintentional plagiarism on the other tab in this box for tips on using sources in your work and avoiding poor academic practice.
Which referencing style should I use?

The School of Pharmacy recommend two different styles of referencing depending on the type of assignment: Harvard (a name-date style) and Vancouver (a numbered style). The versions of these styles used are based on guidance given in the 'Cite Them Right' book. Note that other versions of these styles are not acceptable. 

This guidance applies to students on the MPharm, Pharmacology, Physician Associate and CIPPET programmes.

To reference correctly you need to provide the full details for each source in a list at the end of your document AND have a citation in the text to indicate which parts came from each source. The style you use for these will depend on whether you are using Harvard or Vancouver.

Further support with writing references

For further help with formatting your references consult your Academic Liaison Librarian, Jackie Skinner - email, come to the weekly drop-in, or make an appointment (contact details below).

This video gives an overview of why and how you should reference materials used in your assignments. You will need to login with your University username and password to view this video.

The next video gives tips on how to use references in your work to avoid being accused of plagiarism:

When you submit your work you will be asked to do so through the Turnitin similarity checker. This video explains what this does and how you can use it to improve your writing.

The next two videos give guidance on using supporting evidence from publications in your assignments by using quotes or paraphrasing.

Harvard referencing - click on the tabs for guidance on specific publications

The 'Cite Them Right' Harvard style is an author-date system. In-text citations include the author and year of the reference. Full references are listed at the end in alphabetical order by the author's surname. See the other tabs in this box for guidance on citing specific types of publication in this style.

In-text citations

For the Harvard style, your in-text citation should include:

  • The author of the cited work
  • The year of publication of the cited work.

There are two ways of including an in-text citation and you can use both depending on how you want to structure each sentence. You can include the citation with the author’s surname and date in brackets at the end of the sentence:

Medical systems need to be carefully considered and designed to reduce the likelihood of medication errors (Ferner, 2020).

Or, you can include the author’s surname as part of your sentence, in which case only the date is in brackets:

More recently, a paper by Ferner (2020) has suggested that...

You can use a mix of these approaches in your assignment.

How many authors do I need to include in the in-text citation?

If the citation has two authors

List both authors with 'and' or '&' in between (but be consistent in your use of 'and' or '&').

A recent study by Morbey and Smith (2021) found that...

... (Morbey and Smith, 2021).

If the citation has three authors

List all three authors with a comma after the first author, '&' or 'and' before the last author (but be consistent in your use of 'and' or '&').

A recent study by Chen, Savana and Patel (2022) found that...

... (Chen, Savana and Patel, 2022).

If the citation has four or more authors

Use the first author's name followed by "et al." in italics.

A recent study by Rang et al. (2020) found that...

It has been shown previously (Rang et al., 2020) that....

Note: you will need to include ALL authors in the full reference at the end of your document.


Other citation questions

How do I cite more than one source for a sentence?

List the sources chronologically, separated by semi-colons.

There are many studies that have examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive impairment (Chen and Xi, 2012; Patel, 2020; Hussein et al., 2022).

How do I differentiate references by the same author in the same year?

Differentiate them using letters after the year - both in the in-text citation and the full reference.

Chen and Hussein (2021a)... and Chen and Hussein (2021b)...

Can I cite a work by a company or organisation?

Many works by organisations do not have individually named authors. In this case, you can use the name of the organisation or company, such as Cancer Research UK or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), as the author. This is known as a corporate author. 

Asthma UK (2015) studies have shown...    ... (Asthma UK, 2015).

What if I have multiple references by the same author in a sentence?

If you need to refer to two or more sources by the same author in different years, you do not need to keep repeating the author's surname in the citation. Include the surname and the oldest year first, then separate the other years by semicolons (;). The sources should be ordered by year of publication, with the oldest first.

NHS (2016; 2019; 2021) studies have consistently shown  ...(NHS, 2016; 2019; 2021)

You must include all of the sources separately in your reference list.

Do I need to include page numbers in my citation?

You only need to include a page number if directly quoting from a work. Enclose the quote in single quotation marks and include a page number in the in-text citation. For example:

More recently, a paper by Walker et al. (2020) stated that 'student pharmacists are valuable and important to practice model transformation' (p. 47).

A recent paper stated that 'student pharmacists are valuable and important to practice model transformation' (Walker et al., 2020, p. 47).

How do I refer to a source referenced in another work?

This type of referencing is known as secondary referencing and should be avoided wherever possible, as the author citing the work may bring their own bias or misinterpretation. It is better to seek out the original reference and cite it directly if it is useful.

See further guidance on secondary referencing below.


Reference list

Order

References must be listed at the end of your document in alphabetical order by author surname/organisation name. If you use the same source more than once, just use the same in-text citation as previously to refer to the same full reference. 

Author names

Cited using Surname, Initials - place a comma and a space between the surname and initials. Full stops between initials e.g.:

Chen, Z.L.

Multiple authors

List all of the authors in the full reference in the order they appear on the publication.


Additional guidance

See the tabs in this box for additional guidance and relevant examples. Our Harvard guidance is closely aligned with that given in the 'Cite them right' book and website (below). You can find extra publication types and examples via this website. Note that we deviate from this guide in some case to make references simpler e.g. only requiring DOI or web address for articles which do not have page numbers or an article reference number.

You will need to login with your University username and password to view this video.

Citing books

Include the following in your reference:

  1. Author/Editor name(s) in the format 'Surname, Initials'
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Book title (in italics or underlined) followed by a full stop.
  4. Edition (if 2nd edn or later)
  5. Place of publication followed by a colon e.g. London:
  6. Publisher.

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples.


Example: book with a single author/editor

Citation in the text:     (Houghton, 2020)

Full reference:     
Houghton, A.R. (2020) Making sense of the ECG: a hands-on guide. 5th edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Example: book with two authors/editors

Citation in the text:   (Jeukendrup and Gleeson, 2019)

Full reference:
Jeukendrup, A. and Gleeson, M. (2019) Sport nutrition. 3rd edn. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Example: book with four or more authors/editors

Citation in the text:    (Ritter et al., 2020)

Full reference:
Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J., Henderson, G., Loke, Y.K., MacEwan, D. and Rang, H.P. (2020) Rang and Dale's pharmacology, 9th edn. Edinburgh: Elsevier.

Note that all authors are included in the full reference.

E-books

Where an e-book looks like a printed book (usually PDFs) and you can find all the publication information (including place published and publisher) - cite it in the same way as a printed book (above). You do not need to include the web address.

Where it is not possible to find the publication information include the web address and date accessed instead, as in the example below:

Citation in the text:   (UK Health Security Agency, 2020)

Full reference:
UK Health Security Agency (2020) Immunisation against infectious disease (The Green Book). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/immunisation-against-infectious-disease-the-green-book (Accessed: 21 April 2022).


EndNote tips

  • Print and e-books
    • Use the Reference Type 'Book'
    • Fields to complete:
      • Author: in the format surname, initials, each author on a separate line
      • Year:
      • Title:
      • Place published:
      • Publisher:
      • Edition: if not the first - just add the number e.g. 2nd, 3rd
  • Edited books
    • Use the Reference Type  'Edited book'
    • Fields to add:
      • Editor: in the format surname, initials, each editor on a separate line
      • Other fields the same as above
  • Online only books 
    • Use the Reference Type 'Electronic Book'
    • Complete the same fields as above. Also add:
      • Date Accessed: the date you looked looked at the book in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
      • URL: the web address

Citing book chapters

Include the following in your reference:

  1. Chapter author name(s) in the format 'Surname, Initials'
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Chapter title in single quotation marks
  4. in followed by book editor(s) name(s) in the format 'Surname, Initials' followed by (ed.) or (eds)
  5. Book title (in italics)
  6. Edition (if second edition or later)
  7. Place of publication followed by a colon e.g. London:
  8. Publisher's name
  9. Chapter pagination preceeded by pp.

Include the page extent of the whole chapter when writing your full citation. Put just the pages you have referred to in the in-text citation.

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples.


Example: book chapter with three authors

Citation in the text:     (Singh, Khurana and Singh, 2018, p. 38)

Full reference:    
Singh, H., Khurana, L.K. and Singh, R. (2018) 'Pharmaceutical development', in Vohora, D. and Singh, G. (eds) Pharmaceutical medicine and translational clinical research. London: Academic Press, pp.33-46.

Example: book chapter with four or more authors

Citation in the text:     (Hosznyak et al., 2012, p. 199)

Full reference:
Hosznyak, R., Hosznyak, E., Westaway, A. and Graveson, J. (2017) 'Eye, ear, nose and throat assessment', in Ranson, M. and Abbott, H. (eds) Clinical examination skills for healthcare professional. 2nd edn. Keswick: M & K Publishing, pp. 126-137.

Note that all authors are included in the full reference.


Citing chapters in online only books

Where an e-book chapter looks like a printed book chapter (usually PDFs) and you can find all the publication information (including place published and publisher) - cite it in the same way as a printed book (above). You do not need to include the web address.

Where it is not possible to find the publication information include the web address and date accessed instead:

  • Chapter author(s) in the format 'Surname, Initials' 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Chapter title in single quotation marks. Capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns.
  • 'in' followed by book editor(s) name(s) in the format 'Surname, Initials' followed by (ed.) or (eds)
  • Book title (in italics). Capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns.
  • Edition (if 2nd or later)
  • Available at: https://doi.org... or web address
  • Accessed: date in round brackets (date in this format 25 January 2022)

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples:

  1. UK Health Security Agency (2021) 'Immunisation by nurses and other healthcare professionals', in Immunisation against infectious disease (The Green Book). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/immunisation-by-nurses-and-other-health-professionals-the-green-book-chapter-5 (Accessed: 9 November 2022)
  2. Kawakami, S and Otsuka, S. (2021) 'Multisensory processing in autism spectrum disorders', in Grabrucker, A.M. (ed.) Autism spectrum disorders. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK573612/ (Accessed: 23 October 2022)

EndNote tips

  • For book chapters
    • Use the Reference Type  'Book Section'
    • Fields to complete:
      • Author: in the format surname, initials. Each author on a separate line.
      • Year:
      • Title: title of chapter 
      • Place published:
      • Publisher:
      • Pages: page numbers for the chapter
      • Edition: if not the first - just add the number e.g. 2nd, 3rd
  • For chapters from online only books
    • Use the Reference Type 'Electronic Book Section'
    • Complete the details above (as much as possible)
    • Add URL: the web address
    • Add Access Date: the date you looked looked at the book in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022

Note that the way you enter an online only chapter on EndNote for the Harvard style is different from the way you enter it for the Vancouver style. It is not possible to reuse one entry in both styles.

EndNote does not handle online book sections very well and you will need to edit the reference it creates. As a final step before submission, create a plain text version of your document. Go to the EndNote toolbar in Word and select 'Convert citations and bibliography' to 'Plain text' (this will be under 'Tools' on the Mac version of the toolbar). This will create a copy of your document which is divorced from EndNote so that you can make final tweaks to the references to match the guidance above.

Citing journal articles which have page numbers or article reference numbers

Include the following in your reference:

  1. ALL Author name(s) in the format 'Surname, Initials'
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Article title - in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns
  4. Journal title (in italics) - give the journal name in full, not abbreviated. Use initial capital letters on all significant words.
  5. Volume number
  6. Issue number (if present, in round brackets)
  7. Page numbers or reference number (Include the page numbers of the whole article when writing your full citation, not just the pages you have referred to)

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples.

Example: journal article with a single author

Citation in the text:   (Rhee, 2022)

Full reference:   
Rhee, E. (2022) 'The influence of obesity and metabolic health on vascular health', Endocrinology and Metabolism, 37(1), pp. 1-8.

Example: journal article with two authors

Citation in the text:   (Rana and Neeland, 2022)

Full reference:    
Rana, M.N. and Neeland, I.J. (2022) 'Adipose tissue inflammation and cardiovascular disease: an update', Current Diabetes Reports, 22(1), pp. 27-37.

Example: journal article with four or more authors

Citation in the text:    (Zheng et al., 2021)

Full reference:
Zheng, Y., Phillips, C.L., Sivam, S., Wong, K., Grunstein, R.R., Piper, A.J. and Yee, B.J. (2021) 'Cardiovascular disease in obesity hypoventilation syndrome – a review of potential mechanisms and effects of therapy', Sleep Medicine Reviews, 60, pp. 101530-101530.

You must include all authors in the full reference.


Citing online journal articles without page numbers or article reference numbers

Include the following in your reference:

  1. ALL Author name(s) in the format 'Surname, Initials'
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Article title - in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns
  4. Journal title (in italics) - give the journal name in full, not abbreviated. Use initial capital letters on all significant words.
  5. Volume number
  6. Issue number (if present, in round brackets)
  7. Available at: DOI (preceded by https://doi.org/) or Web link
  8. Accessed: date you looked at the article in the format day month year e.g. 12 June 2022

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples:

Article with no page numbers or reference number:

Citation in the text:    (Azpiroz et al., 2017)

Full reference:
Azpiroz, F., Dubray, C., Bernalier-Donadille, A., Cardot, J.M., Accarino, A., Serra, J., Wagner, A., Respondek, F., Dapoigny, M. (2017) 'Effects of scFOS on the composition of fecal microbiota and anxiety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study'. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 29(2). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.12911 (Accessed: 17 June 2022)

In Press article

Articles are often made available before they receive their official publication details (volume and issue number). If an article is shown as 'In press' and doesn't yet have these details, just use 'In press' instead.

Citation in the text: (Kemps et al., 2022)

Full reference:
Kemps, S., Soleyman, M., Huls, H., Labots, M. and Crul, M. (2022) 'Frequency of measuring body weight in (sub)populations of patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy'. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy (in press). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2021-003215 (Accessed: 17 June 2022)


EndNote tips

You should be able to download details for most articles from databases such as Summon, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. If you need to type one in from scratch this is the information to include.

For most articles
  • Use the Reference Type 'Journal Article'
  • Complete these fields:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year:
    • Title: title of the article - in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns
    • Journal: name of the journal - give the journal name in full, not abbreviated. Use initial capital letters on all significant words.
    • Volume:
    • Issue: (if present)
    • Pages: page numbers or article reference number
For online only articles without page numbers or an article reference number and 'In press' articles
  • Use the reference Type 'Electronic Article'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year:
    • Title: title of the article - in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns
    • Periodical Title: name of the journal - give the journal name in full, not abbreviated. Use initial capital letters on all significant words.
    • Volume:
    • Issue: (put in press here for articles currently being published)
    • Date Accessed: the date you looked at the article in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • URL: If there isn't a DOI add the web address for the article in the URL field. If there is already a URL in the box check that it goes to the article, not back to the reference on the database you downloaded it from. 

Citing web pages or web sites

You should avoid citing webpages unless you are clear of their quality and suitability for inclusion in academic work. See the 'Websites' tab within this guide for more information on evaluating webpages.

Only follow this guidance if the item you want to reference is not a book, a book chapter or a journal article. When you search the internet you will find many different types of content. The first step to referencing correctly is to recognise what you are looking at.

  • Could it be a book?
    Is it a PDF? Does it have a title page giving the title and the authors/editors? Does it have a place published and publisher on the following page? If 'Yes' it is probably a book - follow the guidance on citing a book.
  • Could it be a book chapter?
    Does it say 'Chapter' on it? Does it have page numbers? If 'Yes' it could be a book chapter - follow the guidance on citing a book chapter.
  • Could it be journal article?
    Does it have an abstract or summary? Does it mention the name of a journal and have a volume number? If 'Yes' it could be a journal article - follow the guidance on citing a journal article.

For guidance on citing specific, commonly used pharmacy-related sources see the other tabs in this box.


Citing reputable websites and webpages

Include the following in your reference:

  1. Author name(s) in the format 'Surname, Initials', or organisation that created the page
  2. Year information was created or last edited (in brackets). You might need to scroll to the bottom of the page to find it. If there is no date put (no date)
  3. Page title (in italics and in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  4. Available at: followed by the web address
  5. Accessed: date in round brackets

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples.


Example: webpage with a named author

Citation in the text:    (Dickinson, 2020)

Full reference: 
Dickinson, S. (2020) What are the reported incidences of ankle oedema with different calcium channel blockers? Available at: https://www.sps.nhs.uk/articles/what-are-the-reported-incidences-of-ankle-oedema-with-different-calcium-channel-blockers (Accessed: 21 April 2022) 

Examples: webpages with an organisation as the author

Example 1:

Citation in the text:     (DrugBank, 2022)

Full reference: 
DrugBank (2022) Ranitidine. Available at: https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00863 (Accessed: 21 April 2022).

Example 2:

Citation in the text:     (IUPHAR/BPS, 2022)

Full reference:
IUPHAR/BPS (2022) Ibuprofen. Available at: https://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=2713 [Accessed: 21 April 2022]

Example: webpage without a date

If there isn't a date on the website, even at the bottom of the page, use 'no date'. 

Citation in the text:  (Action on Salt, no date)

Full reference:
Action on Salt (no date) UK salt reduction. Available at: https://www.actiononsalt.org.uk/reformulation/uk-salt-reduction-timeline/# (Accessed: 9 April 2022).


EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
      Organisation as the author? Put a comma after the name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. British Nutrition Foundation,
    • Year: use the updated date for the page, if there isn't a date use 'no date'
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Access Date: the date you looked at the site in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • URL: web address for the page
  • Organisation as the author? Put a comma after the name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. British Nutrition Foundation,

Citing the BNF

When citing the BNF you only need one generic reference, not specific references for each drug or piece of information you have used. Just make it clear in your text which drug/section you are referring to. 


Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Joint Formulary Committee
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title - British National Formulary (BNF) in italics
  • Edition
  • Place of publication: London
  • Publisher: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press

Copy the format and punctuation of this example:

Citation in the text:      (Joint Formulary Committee, 2021)

Full reference:
Joint Formulary Committee (2021) British National Formulary (BNF) 82. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press.


Online version (on MedicinesComplete)

Use the MedicinesComplete version of the BNF rather than the NICE website version as it is easier to find the update date.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Joint Formulary Committee
  • Year of publication (in round brackets) - use the year from the 'Publication last updated' date from the top of the page instead of the date the individual drug was updated
  • Title - British National Formulary (BNF) in italics
  • BNF update date (taken from the top of the page)
  • Available at: https://www.medicinescomplete.com (Accessed: date)
    Note that you just use the site web address, not the page address for the specific drug you are using.

Copy the format and punctuation of this example:

Citation in the text:      (Joint Formulary Committee, 2022)

Full reference:
Joint Formulary Committee (2022) British National Formulary (BNF). 11 April 2022. Available at: https://www.medicinescomplete.com (Accessed: 21 April 2022)


EndNote tips

For the print version

  • Use the Reference Type 'Book'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: Joint Formulary Committee, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year:
    • Title: followed by Version number e.g. British National Formulary (BNF) 82
    • Place published:
    • Publisher:

For the online version:

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: Joint Formulary Committee, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year: 
    • Title: followed by the update date e.g. British National Formulary (BNF). 10 May 2022
    • Access Date: the date you looked at the site in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • URL: https://www.medicinescomplete.com
  • Note that if you have added Type of Medium 'Internet' to comply with the Vancouver style, you will need to remove it to create a correct Harvard reference. 

Access the BNF 

Citing the BNF for children

When citing the BNF for children you only need one generic reference, not specific references for each drug or piece of information you have used. Just make it clear in your text which drug/section you are referring to. 


Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s): Pediatric Formulary Committee
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title: BNF for children (in italics) and version
  • Place of publication: London
  • Publisher: BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press and RCPCH Publications

Copy the format and punctuation of this example. Make sure you check the date and edition of the version you are using.

Citation in the text:     (Pediatric Formulary Committee, 2021)

Full reference:
Pediatric Formulary Committee (2021) BNF for children 2021-2022. London: BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press and RCPCH Publications.


Online version (on MedicinesComplete)

Use the MedicinesComplete version of the BNF rather than the NICE website version as it is easier to find the updated date.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s): Pediatric Formulary Committee
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title: BNF for children (in italics)
  • Update date (this will be displayed in the top right corner of the drug details)
  • Available at: https://www.medicinescomplete.com (Accessed: date)

Copy the format and punctuation of this example. Make sure you check the date and edition (month and year) of the version you are using.

Citation in the text:      (Pediatric Formulary Committee, 2022)

Full reference:
Pediatric Formulary Committee (2022) BNF for children. 11 April 2022. Available at: http://www.medicinescomplete.com (Accessed: 21 April 2022)


EndNote tips

For the print version

  • Use the Reference Type 'Book'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: Pediatric Formulary Committee, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year:
    • Title: followed by version e.g. BNF for children 2021-2022
    • Place published: London
    • Publisher:  BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press and RCPCH Publications

For the online version:

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: Pediatric Formulary Committee, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year: 
    • Title: followed by the update date e.g. BNF for children. 11 April 2022
    • Access Date: the date you looked at the site in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • URL: https://www.medicinescomplete.com
  • Note that if you have added Type of Medium 'Internet' to comply with the Vancouver style, you will need to remove it to create a correct Harvard reference. 

Access the BNF for children

Citing the British Pharmacopoeia

When citing the British Pharmacopoeia you only need one generic reference, not specific references for each drug or section you have used. Just make it clear in your text which drug/section you are referring to. 


Include the following in your reference:

  • Author: British Pharmacopoeia Commission
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title: British Pharmacopoeia. Version. (in italics)
  • Available at: https://www.pharmacopoeia.com (Accessed: date)

Copy the format and punctuation of this example:

Citation in the text:     (British Pharmacopoeia Commission, 2021)

Reference list:
British Pharmacopoeia Commission. (2021). British Pharmacopoeia. Ph. Eur. 10.8 update. Available at: https://www.pharmacopoeia.com (Accessed: 21 April 2022)

 

EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: British Pharmacopoeia Commission, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year: 
    • Title: followed by the update date e.g. British Pharmacopoeia. Ph. Eur. 10.8 update
    • Access Date: the date you looked at the site in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • URL: https://www.pharmacopoeia.com
  • Note that if you have added Type of Medium 'Internet' to comply with the Vancouver style, you will need to remove it to create a correct Harvard reference. 

Access the British Pharmacopoeia

Citing NICE guidelines

Include the following in your reference:

  1. Author: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
  2. Year created/updated (use the most recent date) in round brackets
  3. Title of document/page (in italics) followed by the guideline reference number in round brackets
  4. Available at: followed by the web address
  5. Accessed: date in round brackets

Copy the format and punctuation of this example.

In-text citation:   (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2021)

Full reference:
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2021) Acute heart failure: diagnosis and management (CG187). Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg187 (Accessed: 6 June 2022)


EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), - make sure you put a comma after the name so it formats correctly
      Organisation as the author? Put a comma after the name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. British Nutrition Foundation,
    • Year: use the updated date for the page, if there isn't a date use 'no date'
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Access Date: the date you looked at the site in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • URL: web address for the page
      (For a shorter reference use the link for the webpage instead of the longer PDF link)
  • Note that if you have added Type of Medium 'Internet' to comply with the Vancouver style, you will need to remove it to create a correct Harvard reference. 

Citing local guidelines

Local guidelines, although authored by individuals, should be ratified by a designated committee therefore are the work of the organisation.

Print guidelines

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - organisation name
  • Year of publication in round brackets
  • Title of policy and Version (in italics)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher (often the same as the author)

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example.

Citation in the text:    (Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, 2016)

Full reference:
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust (2016) Non-medical prescribing policyVersion 3. London: Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust.

Online guidelines

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - organisation name
  • Year of publication in round brackets
  • Title of policy and Version (in italics)
  • Available at: followed by the web address
  • Accessed: date in round brackets

Use the text formatting and punctuation shown in this example.

Citation in the text:     (North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network, 2016)

Full reference:
North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network (2016) Prescribing guidance. Version 12. Available at: https://www.ncl-mon.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/pg_ncl_prescribing_guidance.pdf (Accessed: 25 April 2022)

EndNote tips

For print guidelines

  • Use the Reference Type 'Book'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials, each author on a separate line. If the author is an organisation put a comma after the name to make sure it formats correctly e.g. North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network,
    • Year:
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns) include the Version after the title e.g. Prescribing guidance: Version 12.
    • Place published:
    • Publisher:

For online guidelines

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page' 
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials, each author on a separate line.
      Organisation as the author? Put a comma after the name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. e.g. North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network,
    • Year: 
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Access Date: the date you looked at the site in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • URL: web address for the page
  • Note that if you have added Type of Medium 'Internet' to comply with the Vancouver style, you will need to remove it to create a correct Harvard reference. 

Citing SMPCs (Summaries of Products Characteristics) on the Electronic Medicines Compendium

Include the following in your reference:

  1. Author - drug company who wrote the SmPC
  2. Year updated on EMC
  3. Title. Electronic Medicines Compendium. (in italics)
  4. Available at: followed by the web address
  5. Accessed: date in round brackets

Copy the format and punctuation of this example.

Citation in the text:     (Accord-UK Ltd., 2020)

Full reference:
Accord-UK Ltd (2020) Aciclovir 400mg tablets summary of product characteristics. Electronic Medicines Compendium. Available at: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/5692/smpc (Accessed: 25 April 2022).


EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: company name. Put a comma after the company name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. Accord-UK Ltd.,
    • Year: 
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns). Add ': Electronic Medicines Compendium' after the title.
    • Access Date: the date you looked at the site in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • URL: web address for the page
  • Note that if you have added Type of Medium 'Internet' to comply with the Vancouver style, you will need to remove it to create a correct Harvard reference. 

Citing systematic reviews on The Cochrane Library database

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) in the format Surname, Initials
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of review (in single quotation marks)
  • Database name (in italics)
  • Issue number
  • Article number (CD ...)
  • DOI or Available at: web address (Accessed: date)

Copy the format and punctuation of this example.

Citation in the text:     (Crowe, Chang and Wallace, 2016)

Reference list:
Crowe, L., Chang, A., and Wallace, K. (2016) 'Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8, CD005586, DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005586.pub3

EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Electronic article'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year:
    • Title: title of the review - in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns
    • Periodical Title: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
    • Volume: Issue number, Article number e.g. 8, CD005586
    • DOI

Note that the way you enter a Cochrane Review on EndNote for the Harvard style is very different from the way you enter it for the Vancouver style. It is not possible to reuse one entry in both styles.


Access The Cochrane Library

Citing clinical trials

Although most references refer to the published paper as this details the results of the clinical trial, depending on the context of what you write you may need to reference the clinical trial itself.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) in the format Surname, Initials (this will be the primary contact for the trial)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of trial (in single quotation marks)
  • Database/registry name (in italics)
  • Trial reference number
  • DOI or Available at: web address (Accessed: date)

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples.


Example 1: with a DOI

Citation in the text:    (Morrow, 2019)

Full reference:
Morrow, S. (2019) 'Implementing improved asthma self-management as routine', ISRCTN, ISRCTN15448074. DOI: 110.1186/ISRCTN15448074.

Example 2: without a DOI

Citation in the text:    (Reznik, 2021)

Full reference:
Reznik, M. (2021) 'Electronic monitoring of medication adherence in moderate to severe asthma patients', ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02913092. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02913092 (Accessed: 9 May 2022).


EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Electronic article'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year: 
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Periodical Title: Database/Registry name
    • Volume: Trial number
    • Date Accessed: date you looked at it in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • DOI: add DOI if it has one
    • URL: the web link if no DOI
  • Note that the way you enter a Clinical Trial on EndNote for the Harvard style is very different from the way you enter it for the Vancouver style. It is not possible to reuse one entry in both styles.

Citing materials posted on Blackboard

Always check with your tutor if you are allowed to refer to course materials in your own work. It is preferable to use published sources where possible, such as articles and books. 

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author's name in the format Surname, Initials
  • Year in round brackets
  • Title of document/presentation as given on Blackboard (in single quotation marks)
  • Medium in square brackets e.g. [PowerPoint presentation, Lecture, Recorded lecture)
  • Module code: module title (in italics)
  • Institution
  • Available at: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk (Accessed: date) 
    Note that you do not need to give the specific web address for the material you are citing. The address for Blackboard is sufficient.

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples.


Example 1: PowerPoint slides

Citation in the text:     (Lim, 2021)

Full reference:
Lim, R. (2021) 'Medication safety part 1' [Presentation slides]. PM2D: Delivering pharmacy services. University of Reading. Available at: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk (Accessed: 20 May 2022)

Example 2: Handout

Citation in the text:     (Savania, 2021)

Full reference:
Savania, R. (2021) 'Accuracy checklist', PM2D: Delivering pharmacy services. University of Reading. Available at: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk (Accessed: 20 May 2022)

For guidance on citing other types of materials posted on Blackboard see Section G7 of the following book:


EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type  'Web Page' 
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year: 
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Series title: module code and title
    • Publisher: University of Reading
    • Access Date: date you looked at it in the format day month year e.g. 17 June 2022
    • Type of Medium: add the Format here e.g. Presentation slides, Lecture notes, Recorded lecture, Handout
    • URL: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk 

Note that even with the information entered as above EndNote will not quite format the reference correctly - the title of the document should be enclosed in single quotes and be in plain text; the module details should be in italics; the Type of Medium should be after the document title. To correct this, as a final step before submission, create a plain text version of your document. Go to the EndNote toolbar in Word and select 'Convert citations and bibliography' to 'Plain text' (this will be under 'Tools' on the Mac version of the toolbar). This will create a copy of your document which is divorced from EndNote so that you can make final tweaks to the references.

Vancouver referencing - click on the tabs for guidance on specific publications

Vancouver is a numbered style. Each piece of work cited should have a unique number, assigned in order (your first reference is 1, your second is 2 etc.). It is a very plain style with little punctuation and no text formatting such as italics, underlining or bold.

In-text citations

When adding an in-text citation to your document you can write the number in brackets:

Medical systems need to be carefully considered and designed to reduce the likelihood of medication errors (1).

How do I cite multiple sources together?

Include the citation number for each source with commas in between. Use a hyphen to link consecutive numbers. For example:

There are many studies that have examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive impairment (1,3, 4-7, 9).

Other citation questions

How should I refer to authors in the text?

You do not have to refer to the authors' names in the text but it may help the flow of your writing to do so.

Two authors: give both author's surnames linked with 'and'. For example:

A recent study by Chen and Lee (4) found that...

Three or more authors: use the first author's surname followed by "et al.". For example:

A recent study by Rang et al. (2) found that...

An organisation: give the full name with any recognised abbreviation in brackets afterwards e.g. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Thereafter you can refer to it using the abbreviation. Give the full name and abbreviation in the full reference. For example:

A survey by Asthma UK found that one in 20 people suffer from severe asthma (6).

How do I include a quote from a source?

If directly quoting from a work, you need to use single quotation marks. Include a page number in the in-text citation. For example:

More recently, a paper by Walker et al. (3) stated that 'student pharmacists are valuable and important to practice model transformation' (p. 47).

A paper by Walker et al.stated that 'student pharmacists are valuable and important to practice model transformation' (3, p. 47).

How do I refer to a source referenced in another work?

This type of referencing is known as secondary referencing and should be avoided wherever possible, as the author citing the work may have their own bias or misinterpretation. It is better to seek out the original reference (in this example, Ahmed’s) and cite it directly if it is useful.

You need to include both authors' names in the body of your text to show that you have not read the original article. In the final reference list, you should only include the reference you have read yourself (Jones in this example):

According to Ahmed as cited in Jones (5)...


Reference list

Order

References must be listed at the end of your document in numerical order based on the order of citation. If you use the same source more than once, the original citation number should be used. 

Author names

Cited by Surname Initials - there is no comma between the surname and initials, nor any full stop or space between initials.

Chen ZL

Multiple authors

Authors should be listed in the order they appear on the publication. Only list the first six authors followed by et al. 

Monzer NL, Hartmann M, Buckert M, Wolff K, Nawroth P, Kopf S et al. 


Additional guidance

See the tabs in this box for additional guidance and relevant examples. Our Vancouver guidance is closely aligned with that given in the 'Cite them right' book and website (below). You can find extra publication types and examples via this website. Note that we deviate from this guide in some case to make references simpler. For instance you should put journal names in full not abbreviated.

You will need to login with your University username and password to view this video.

Citing books and e-books

Most books and e-books can be cited in the same way. If you are viewing the PDF of a printed book there is no need to include the web address in your reference if you have the place published and publisher.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) or editors in the format Surname Initials (no full stops or spaces between initials).
    For books with more than six authors list the first six followed by 'et al.'
  • Title of book (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
    You can usually find this information on the title page or following page.

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples:

  1. Ritter JM, Flower RJ, Henderson G, Loke YK, MacEwan D, Rang HP. Rang and Dale's pharmacology. 9th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2020.
  2. Ashley C, Dunleavy A, editors. The renal drug handbook: the ultimate prescribing guide for renal practitioners. 5th ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2019.

Citing online only books

Some books are born digital and are not published in a traditional format. If the book does not have a Place published and Publisher then you will need to follow this guidance. Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) or editors in the format Surname Initials (no full stops or spaces between initials)
    For books with more than six authors list the first six followed by 'et al.'
  • Title of book (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • [Internet]
  • Year. 
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 Jun 18]
    You can usually find this information on the title page or following page.
  • Available from: https://doi.org... or web address

Note: if you are unable to find a place published and publisher you will need to cite the item following the web page guidance.

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples:

  1. UK Health Security Agency. Immunisation against infectious disease (The Green Book) [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 26]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/immunisation-against-infectious-disease-the-green-book.
  2. Grabrucker AM, editor. Autism spectrum disorders [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK573612/.

EndNote tips

  • Print and e-books
    • Use the Reference Type 'Book'
    • Fields to complete:
      • Author: in the format surname, initials, each author on a separate line
      • Year:
      • Title:
      • Place published:
      • Publisher:
      • Edition: if not the first - just add the number e.g. 2nd, 3rd
  • Edited books
    • Use the Reference Type  'Edited book'
    • Fields to complete:
      • Same as above but instead of the Author field fill in the Editor field 
  • Online only books 
    • Use the Reference Type 'Electronic Book'
    • Fields to complete:
      • Author: in the format surname, initials, each author on a separate line
      • Year:
      • Title:
      • Edition: if not the first - just add the number e.g. 2nd, 3rd
      • Type of Medium: Internet
      • Year Cited: in the format 2022
      • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 23
      • Note that even with the information entered as above EndNote will not quite format the reference correctly - the edition will not appear and for edited e-books 'editors' will not be added after the editor names. To correct this, as a final step before submission, create a plain text version of your document. Go to the EndNote toolbar in Word and select 'Convert citations and bibliography' to 'Plain text' (this will be under 'Tools' on the Mac version of the toolbar). This will create a copy of your document which is divorced from EndNote so that you can make final tweaks to the references to match the guidance above.

Citing chapters in printed books and e-books with publication details

Follow this guidance to cite a printed book or an e-book which has the publisher and place published information. Include the following in your reference:

  • Chapter author(s) in the format Surname Initials (no full stops or spaces between initials)
  • Title of chapter. (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • In
  • Editor(s) of the book followed by , editors
  • Title of book. (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
  • Page numbers of the chapter preceded by p. Abbreviate where appropriate e.g. 110-128 would be 110-28, 450-455 would be 450-5.

Copy the format and punctuation of this example

  1. Singh H, Khurana LK, Singh R. Pharmaceutical development. In: Vohora D, Singh G, editors. Pharmaceutical medicine and translational clinical research. London: Academic Press; 2018. p. 33-46.
  2. Davies J, Nuttall D. Prescribing for specific groups. In: Nuttall, D, Rutt-Howard J, editors. The textbook of non-medical prescribing. 3rd ed. Hoboken: Wiley; 2020. p. 238-73.

Citing chapters in online only books

Some books are born digital and are not published in a traditional format. When citing chapters in these include the following in your reference:

  • Chapter author(s) in the format Surname Initials  (no full stops or spaces between initials)
  • Title of chapter. (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • In:
  • Editor(s) of the book followed by , editors
  • Title of book. (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • [Internet]
  • Year.
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 Jun 18]
  • Page numbers of the chapter if available preceded by p. Abbreviate where appropriate e.g. 110-128 would be 110-28, 450-455 would be 450-5.
  • Available from: https://doi.org... or web address

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples:

  1. UK Health Security Agency. Immunisation by nurses and other healthcare professionals. In: Immunisation against infectious disease (The Green Book) [Internet]. 2021. p. 35-9 [cited 2021 Mar 26]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/immunisation-by-nurses-and-other-health-professionals-the-green-book-chapter-5.
  2. Kawakami S and Otsuka S. Multisensory processing in autism spectrum disorders. In: Grabrucker AM, editor. Autism spectrum disorders [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK573612/.

Endnote tips

  • Chapters from printed books and e-books with place published and publisher.
    • Use the Reference Type 'Book Section'
    • Fields to complete:
      • Author: in the format surname, initials. Each author on a separate line.
      • Year:
      • Title: title of chapter 
      • Place published:
      • Publisher:
      • Pages: page numbers for the chapter
      • Edition: if not the first - just add the number e.g. 2nd, 3rd
  • Chapters from online only books 
    • Use the Reference Type 'Electronic Book Section'
    • Fields to complete:
      • Author: in the format surname, initials, each author on a separate line
      • Year:
      • Title:
      • Edition: if not the first - just add the number e.g. 2nd, 3rd
      • Type of Work: Internet
      • Access Date: in the format year, month (abbreviated to three letters) day e.g. 2022 Nov 21
    • Note that even with all the required information entered in EndNote it will not format the reference correctly - the Edition and Type of Work will not be in the correct place. For edited e-books 'editors' will not be added after the editor names. The Access Date will be repeated at the end. To correct this, as a final step before submission, create a plain text version of your document. Go to the EndNote toolbar in Word and select 'Convert citations and bibliography' to 'Plain text' (this will be under 'Tools' on the Mac version of the toolbar). This will create a copy of your document which is divorced from EndNote so that you can make final tweaks to the references to match the guidance above.

Note that the way you enter a chapter on EndNote for the Vancouver style is different from the way you enter it for the Harvard style. It is not possible to reuse one entry in both styles.

Citing journal articles which have page numbers or article reference numbers

Include the following in your reference:

  • Article author(s) in the format Surname Initials (no full stops or spaces between initials).
    For articles with more than six authors list the first six followed by 'et al.'
  • Title of article. (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • Journal title in full (use a capital letter at the start of each significant word in the title)
    Note: we are not following the 'Cite them right' guidance to abbreviate journal names.
  • Year;
  • Volume number
  • Issue number in brackets (where present)
  • Page numbers or article reference number. Abbreviate page ranges where appropriate e.g. 110-128 would be 110-28, 450-455 would be 450-5.

Copy the format and punctuation of this example:

Rana, MN, Neeland IJ. Adipose tissue inflammation and cardiovascular disease: an update. Current Diabetes Reports. 2022; 22(1):27-37. 

Monzer NL, Hartmann M, Buckert M, Wolff K, Nawroth P, Kopf S et al. The cardiac autonomic response to acute psychological stress in type 2 diabetes. PloS One. 2022; 17(3):e0265234.

Citing online journal articles without page numbers or article reference numbers

Include the following in your reference:

  • Article author(s) in the format Surname Initials (no full stops or spaces between initials).
    For articles with more than six authors list the first six followed by 'et al.'
  • Title of article. (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • Journal title in full (use a capital letter at the start of each significant word in the title)
    Note: we are not following the 'Cite them right' guidance to abbreviate journal names.
  • [Internet]
  • Year
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 Jun 18]
  • Volume number
  • Issue number in brackets (where present)
  • Available from: https://doi.org/... or web address if no DOI

Copy the format and punctuation of this example:

Azpiroz F, Dubray C, Bernalier-Donadille A, Cardot JM, Accarino A, Serra J, Wagner A, Respondek F, Dapoigny M. Effects of scFOS on the composition of fecal microbiota and anxiety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. Neurogastroenterology & Motility. [Internet] .2017 [cited 2022 May 24] ;29(2). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.12911.

Note: if an article is in press and doesn't yet have a volume number treat like as above but add 'Forthcoming' before the year:

Kemps S, Soleyman M, Huls H, Labots M, Crul M. Frequency of measuring body weight in (sub)populations of patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. [Internet]. Forthcoming 2022 [cited 2022 May 24] . Available from: https://doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2021-003215


EndNote tips

You should be able to download details for most articles from databases such as Summon, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. If you need to type one in from scratch this is the information to include.

For most articles
  • Use the Reference Type 'Journal Article'
  • Complete these fields:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year:
    • Title: title of the article - in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns
    • Journal: name of the journal - give the journal name in full, not abbreviated. Use initial capital letters on all significant words.
    • Volume:
    • Issue: (if present)
    • Pages: page numbers or article reference number
For online only articles without page numbers or an article reference number and 'In press' articles:
  • Use Reference Type 'Electronic Article'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year:
    • Title: title of the article - in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns
    • Periodical Title: name of the journal - give the journal name in full, not abbreviated. Use initial capital letters on all significant words.
    • Volume: (if the article doesn't yet have a volume number add 'Forthcoming ' before the year - as in the above example)
    • Issue: (put in press here for articles currently being published).
    • Type of Work: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited in the format month day e.g. Dec 5.
    • URL: paste in the web link for the article or move the DOI from the DOI field and add https://doi.org/ in front of it e.g. https://doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2021-003215
      If there is already a URL in the box check that it goes to the article, not back to the reference on the database you downloaded it from. Replace any database links with the DOI with https://doi.org/ in front of it or add the direct link to the article.

Citing websites or webpages

You should avoid citing webpages unless you are clear of their quality and suitability for inclusion in academic work. See the 'Websites' tab within this guide for more information on evaluating webpages.

Only follow this guidance if the item you want to reference is not a book, a book chapter or a journal article. When you search the internet you will find many different types of content. The first step to referencing correctly is to recognise what you are looking at.

  • Could it be a book?
    Is it a PDF? Does it have a title page giving the title and the authors/editors? Does it have a place published and publisher on the following page? If 'Yes' it is probably a book - follow the guidance on citing a book.
  • Could it be a book chapter?
    Does it say 'Chapter' on it? Does it have page numbers? If 'Yes' it could be a book chapter - follow the guidance on citing a book chapter.
  • Could it be journal article?
    Does it have an abstract or summary? Does it mention the name of a journal and have a volume number? If 'Yes' it could be a journal article - follow the guidance on citing a journal article.

For guidance on citing specific, commonly used pharmacy-related sources see the other tabs in this box.


Citing reputable websites and webpages

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s)/Organisation name
  • Title of page/document (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • [Internet].
  • Year created/updated (for webpages with no date omit this element)
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 Feb 18]
  • Available from: web link

Use the format and punctuation shown in these examples:

  1. Dickinson S. What are the reported incidences of ankle oedema with different calcium channel blockers? [Internet] 2020 [cited 2022 Jun 6]. Available from: https://www.sps.nhs.uk/articles/what-are-the-reported-incidences-of-ankle-oedema-with-different-calcium-channel-blockers.
  2. DrugBank. Ranitidine [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Jan 8]. Available from: https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00863.
  3. IUPHAR/BPS. Ibuprofen [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Apr 23]. Available from: 
    https://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=2713.

EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
      Organisation as the author? Put a comma after the name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. British Nutrition Foundation,
    • Year: use the updated date for the page, if there isn't a date use 'no date'
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Type of Medium: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 23
    • URL: web address for the page
  • Organisation as the author? Put a comma after the name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. British Nutrition Foundation,

Citing the BNF

When citing the BNF you only need one generic reference, not specific references for each drug or section you have used. Just make it clear in your text which drug/section you are referring to. 


Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Joint Formulary Committee.
  • Title - British National Formulary (BNF).
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication - London:
  • Publisher -  BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press;
  • Year.

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (BNF). 83 ed. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press; 2022.

Online version (on MedicinesComplete)

When citing the BNF Online you should use the MedicinesComplete version instead of the version freely available on NICE website or on the BNF app because it is easier to identify when it was updated.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Joint Formulary Committee
  • Title - British National Formulary (BNF) and Update date (shown at the top of the screen)
  • [Internet]
  • Year
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 Jun 18]
  • Available from: https://www.medicinescomplete.com

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (BNF). 10 May 2022 [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 13]. Available from: https://www.medicinescomplete.com.

EndNote tips

For the print version

  • Use the Reference Type 'Book'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: Joint Formulary Committee, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year:
    • Title: followed by Version number e.g. British National Formulary (BNF) 82
    • Place published:
    • Publisher:

For the online version:

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: Joint Formulary Committee, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year: 
    • Title: followed by the update date e.g. British National Formulary (BNF). 10 May 2022
    • Type of Medium: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 2021
    • URL: https://www.medicinescomplete.com

Access the BNF

Citing the BNF for Children

When citing the BNF for children you only need one generic reference, not specific references for each drug or section you have used. Just make it clear in your text which drug/section you are referring to. 


Print version

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Pediatric Formulary Committee
  • Title - BNF for children
  • Edition
  • Place of publication - London:
  • Publisher -  BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press and RCPCH Publications;
  • Year.

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Pediatric Formulary Committee. BNF for children. 2021-2022 ed. London: BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press and RCPCH Publications; 2021. 

Online version (on MedicinesComplete)

When citing the BNF for children online you should use the MedicinesComplete version instead of the version freely available on NICE website or on the BNF app because it is easier to identify when it was updated.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - Pediatric Formulary Committee
  • Title - BNF for children
  • Update date (shown at the top of the screen)
  • [Internet]
  • Year
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 Jun 18]
  • Available from: https://www.medicinescomplete.com

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Pediatric Formulary Committee. BNF for children. 10 May 2022 [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 13]. Available from: https://www.medicinescomplete.com.

EndNote tips

For the print version

  • Use the Reference Type 'Book'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: Pediatric Formulary Committee, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year:
    • Title: followed by version e.g. BNF for children 2021-2022
    • Place published: London
    • Publisher:  BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press and RCPCH Publications

For the online version:

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: Pediatric Formulary Committee, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year: 
    • Title: followed by the update date e.g. BNF for children. 11 April 2022
    • Type of Medium: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 2021

Access the BNF

Citing the British Pharmacopoeia

When citing the British Pharmacopoeia you only need one generic reference, not specific references for each drug or section you have used. Just make it clear in your text which drug/section you are referring to. 


Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - British Pharmacopoeia Commission
  • Title - British Pharmacopoeia
  • Version
  • [Internet]
  • Year
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 Jun 18]
  • Available from: https://www.pharmacopoeia.com

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. British Pharmacopoeia Commission. British Pharmacopoeia. Ph. Eur. 10.8 update [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 13]. Available from: https://www.pharmacopoeia.com.

EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: British Pharmacopoeia Commission, (make sure you put the comma after the name to make it format correctly)
    • Year: 
    • Title: followed by the update date e.g. British Pharmacopoeia. Ph. Eur. 10.8 update
    • Type of Medium: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 13

Access the British Pharmacopoeia

Citing NICE guidelines

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
  • Title of page/document including reference number in round brackets (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
  • [Internet]
  • Year created/updated 
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 Jun 18]
  • Available from: web link
    (For a shorter reference use the link for the webpage instead of the longer PDF link)

Use the format and punctuation shown in these examples:

  1. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Vaccine uptake in the general population (NG218) [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 9]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng218.
  2. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Acute heart failure: diagnosis and management (CG187) [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 10]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg187.

EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), - make sure you put a comma after the name so it formats correctly
      Organisation as the author? Put a comma after the name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. British Nutrition Foundation,
    • Year: use the updated date for the page, if there isn't a date use 'no date'
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Type of Medium: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 13

Citing local guidelines

Local guidelines, although authored by individuals, should be ratified by a designated committee therefore are the work of the organisation.


Print guidelines

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - organisation name
  • Title of policy (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns) and Version
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher (usually the same as the author)
  • Year

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust. Non-medical prescribing policy: Version 3. London: Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust; 2016.
Online guidelines

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s)/Organisation name
  • Title of page/document (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns) and Version
  • [Internet]
  • Year created/updated (for guidelines with no date just use the cited date)
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 June 18]
  • Available from: web link

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network. Prescribing guidance: Version 12 [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2022 June 14]. Available from: https://www.ncl-mon.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/pg_ncl_prescribing_guidance.pdf.

EndNote tips

For print guidelines

  • Use the Reference Type 'Book'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials, each author on a separate line. If the author is an organisation put a comma after the name to make sure it formats correctly e.g. North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network,
    • Year:
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns) include the Version after the title e.g. Prescribing guidance: Version 12.
    • Place published:
    • Publisher:

For online guidelines

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials, each author on a separate line.
      Organisation as the author? Put a comma after the name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. e.g. North Central London Medicines Optimisation Network,
    • Year: 
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Type of Medium: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 20

Citing Summaries of Product Characteristics (SmPCs) on the Electronic Medicines Compendium

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - drug company who wrote the SmPC
  • Title (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns) followed by Electronic Medicines Compendium 
  • [Internet]
  • Year created/updated
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. 2022 June 23
  • Available from: web link 

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Accord-UK Ltd. Aciclovir 400mg tablets summary of product characteristics: Electronic Medicines Compendium [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 June 23]. Available from: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/5692/smpc.

EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: company name. Put a comma after the company name to ensure it formats correctly e.g. Accord-UK Ltd.,
    • Year: 
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns). Add ': Electronic Medicines Compendium' after the title.
    • Type of Medium: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 20

Citing systematic reviews in the Cochrane Library

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author(s) in the format Surname, Initials
  • Title of review
  • Year month day of review
  • In:
  • Title of database: The Cochrane Library
  • [Internet]
  • Issue number
  • Article number
  • Available from: web address or DOI

Use the format and punctuation shown in this example:

  1. Crowe L, Chang A, Wallace K. Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation. 2016 August 23. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Issue 8.  Art. No.: CD005586. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005586.pub3.

EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Electronic Book Section'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Title: title of the review - in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns. Add the year month day of review after the title e.g. Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation. 2016 August 23.
    • Book title: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
    • Edition: Issue 8. Article no.: CD005586
    • Type of Work: Internet
    • URL: web address

Note that the way you enter a Cochrane Review on EndNote for the Vancouver style is very different from the way you enter it for the Harvard style. It is not possible to reuse one entry in both styles.


Access The Cochrane Library

Citing clinical trials

If a trial is still ongoing you may need to refer to it directly instead of to a published paper. 

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author - primary contact for the trial
  • Trial title
  • In:
  • Database/registry name
  • [Internet]
  • Year
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 June 18]
  • Available from: DOI or web address

Use the format and punctuation shown in these examples:

  1. Morrow S. Implementing improved asthma self-management as routine. In: ISRCTN Registry [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2022 June 23]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN15448074.
  2. Reznik M. Electronic monitoring of medication adherence in moderate to severe asthma patients. In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022 June 17]. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02913092.

EndNote tips

  • Use the Reference Type 'Web Page'
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year: 
    • Title (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns) followed by . In: [name of Database/Registry] e.g. Implementing improved asthma self-management as routine. In: ISRCTN Registry
    • Type of Medium: Internet
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 20

Note that the way you enter a Clinical Trial on EndNote for the Vancouver style is very different from the way you enter it for the Harvard style. It is not possible to reuse one entry in both styles.

Citing materials posted on Blackboard

Always check with the academic who set the assignment if you are allowed to refer to course materials in your own work. It is preferable to do your own research and use published sources, such as articles and books, instead of referring to lecture materials.

Include the following in your reference:

  • Author's name in the format Surname Initials
  • Title of document/presentation as given on Blackboard
  • Format in square brackets e.g. [PowerPoint presentation, Lecture notes, Recorded lecture, Handout]
  • Place of publication:
  • Institution;
  • Course details, date
  • [cited year month day] - the date you looked at it e.g. [cited 2022 June 18]
  • Available from: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk
    Note that you do not need to give the specific web address for the material you are citing. The address for Blackboard is sufficient.

Copy the format and punctuation of these examples.

Example 1: PowerPoint slides

Lim R. Medication safety part 1 [PowerPoint presentation]. Reading: University of Reading; PM2D: Delivering pharmacy services; 2021 [cited 2022 May 23]. Available from: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk.

Example 2: Handout

Savania R. Accuracy checklist [Handout]. Reading: University of Reading; PM2D: Delivering pharmacy services. 2021 [cited 2022 June 3]. Available from: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk.


EndNote tips

  • Use the 'Web Page' Reference Type
  • Fields to complete:
    • Author: in the format surname, initials - each author on a separate line
    • Year: 
    • Title: (in lower case apart from the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)
    • Place published: Reading
    • Publisher: University of Reading
    • Type of Medium: add the Format here e.g. PowerPoint presentation, Lecture notes, Recorded lecture, Handout
    • Contents: module code and title e.g. PM2D: Delivering pharmacy services
    • Year Cited: in the format 2022
    • Date Cited: in the format month day e.g. Dec 20
    • URL: https://www.bb.reading.ac.uk

Note that even with the information entered as above EndNote will not quite format the reference correctly - the module details will be in the wrong place. To correct this, as a final step before submission, create a plain text version of your document. Go to the EndNote toolbar in Word and select 'Convert citations and bibliography' to 'Plain text' (this will be under 'Tools' on the Mac version of the toolbar). This will create a copy of your document which is divorced from EndNote so that you can make final tweaks to the references.

Secondary referencing (citing a source you have read about in a different source)

A secondary reference is used when you are referring to a source which you have not read yourself, but have read about in another source. Where possible, you should always try to read the original of anything you wish to refer to; otherwise you are relying on the author who cited the reference to have interpreted it correctly and not taken it out of context. Use the reference list at the end of the source you are reading to find details of the reference and search for it using the search boxes below.

Find books using the Enterprise catalogue

Just type in the first author's surname and a few words from the title.

Find journal articles using Summon

Just type in the first author's surname and first part of the article title.

If you can't get hold of the original source you'll need to do a secondary reference and you should make clear that you are not using the original source. Only include the source you have used in your list of references following the guidance above on citing that type of publication. Indicate in your in-text citation that it is a secondary reference by preceeding the citation with 'as cited in' or 'as quoted in'.

Vancouver example

In-text citation:

According to France as cited in Weingart et al. (4), hospitals use internal reporting procedures to identify...

Reference:

4. Weingart, SN, Zhang L, Sweeney M, Hassett M. Chemotherapy medication errors. The Lancet Oncology, 2018; 19(4): e191-e199.

Harvard example

In-text citation:

According to France (2003, as cited in Weingart et al., 2018), hospitals use internal reporting procedures to identify...

Reference: 

Weingart, S.N., Zhang, L., Sweeney, M, & Hassett, M. (2018) 'Chemotherapy medication errors', The Lancet Oncology, 19(4), pp. e191-e199.

Citing images including charts, diagrams and tables

Images, graphs, charts, diagrams and tables that you have used from books, websites and other texts should be referenced in the same way that you would any other material.

The captions for both tables and figures should include a citation if taken from or based on another source (name-year or number depending on the style you are using). When you refer to it in your writing, use the figure/table number. Give a full citation in the reference list for the source of the image.

Citing tables

Tables should be sequentially numbered with the title/legend above the table - as in this example which uses the Harvard referencing style:

Example of citing a table showing the table legend containing a citation

Example of referring to a table in a sentence:

The macronutrient content of the diets used in the study is shown in Table 2. 

Full details for reference list (Harvard style):

Mitchell, N.S. and Ard, J.D. (2021) 'Weight loss, lifestyle, and dietary factors in cardiovascular diseases in African Americans and Hispanics', in Ferdinand, K.C., Taylor, H.A. and Rodriguez, C.J. (eds) Cardiovascular disease in racial and ethnic minority populations. Cham: Humana Press, pp. 167-182.

Citing figures (images, graphs and diagrams)

Images, graphs and diagrams should be labelled as 'Figure' and sequentially numbered with the caption below - as in this example which uses the Harvard referencing style:

Example of citing a diagram with the Figure number and legend below.

Example of referring to a figure in a sentence:

The prebiotics can induce direct or indirect effect on the gut-associated epithelial and immune cells (Figure 3).

Full details for reference list (Harvard style):

Pujari, R. and Banerjee, G. (2021) 'Impact of prebiotics on immune response: from the bench to the clinic', Immunology and Cell Biology, 99(3), pp. 255-273.

 

Decorative images

If the image is purely decorative you should still acknowledge the creator and source but there is no need to include a full reference.

See the example on the right which includes the caption:
'Image: [creator] via [website image captured from]'.

If it is a picture you have taken use this format:

'Image by author'.

Compiling your own table from multiple sources

If you are taking information from multiple sources and compiling your own table you still need to acknowledge those sources. 

The following link shows two ways of doing this. Although this is a guide to using the APA style the approaches can be adapted for use with Harvard and Vancouver.

Quotes and copying information

  • When taking information from a reference source which you are not putting into your own words i.e. copying and pasting you need to put quotes around the words to indicate that it is not your own work
  • Students are expected to put the majority of information into their own words to demonstrate their understanding and independent thought - the amount of information in quotes should therefore be minimal
  • Quotes should be reserved for situations where no alternative wording is possible and/or where it is not appropriate (e.g. quoting a standard or particular statement which supports your argument)
Direct quote (avoid unless necessary)
  • Wenger (1998, p. 181) argues that 'Engagement, imagination and alignment each create relations of belonging'.
Paraphrase
  • The focus of Wenger's discussion is on the way that different aspects come together to build notions of identity (Wenger, 1998).
Indirect mention
  • Theorists have considered the impact of a variety of circumstances on the creation and expansion of identity (Wenger, 1998; Lee, 2013; Morton and Grainger, 2009).

Avoid quoting large blocks of text:

The NICE guidance for hypertension (NICE, 2019) states the following:

'Beta-blockers are not a preferred initial therapy for hypertension. However, beta-blockers may be considered in younger people, particularly:

  • those with an intolerance or contraindication to ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists or
  • women of child-bearing potential or
  • people with evidence of increased sympathetic drive'

Instead this could be paraphrased as:

NICE no longer recommend beta-blockers to be used as initial therapy for hypertension, although it is recognised that there may be circumstances in which younger patients may benefit from beta-blockers (NICE, 2019).  In my practice I may review younger patients, therefore I will consider the recommendations from NICE on appropriate prescribing of beta-blockers, for example women of child-bearing age, patients with increased sympathetic drive or unable to take ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Additional guidance

Get support with referencing

Profile Photo
Jackie Skinner
Book an appointment
Contact:
Please contact me if you have a query or need advice on literature searching, accessing resources, referencing or using EndNote/Mendeley.

Email me, or make an appointment using the buttons above. Appointments can be in person or online via MS Teams.

In term-time I also hold a weekly drop-in for quick queries on Tuesdays 13:00-14:00. See the drop-in box on this page for more detail.
Website

Library drop-in

Question marks

Got a question about the Library, finding information, referencing, literature searching or using EndNote/Mendeley? 

Then come along to the Library drop-in.

When? Tuesdays 13:00-14:00 in term-time

Where? Harry Nursten Building Room 2-64 (the PC Lab at the back of the 2nd Floor)

If you would like to meet online please make an appointment at another time using the button in my contact box.

EndNote

EndNote logo

Using a reference management system is vital when you do your final year projects and useful for creating accurate references for other assignments. EndNote is one such system which can be used to store references, and then insert the citation in your Word document, automatically building the bibliography for you in the correct style.

Use the following styles in EndNote:

  • Cite Them Right-Harvard
  • Vancouver

There are tips for using EndNote for each type of publication in the Vancouver and Harvard referencing guidance on the left. However, for some non-standard publications EndNote may not format your references correctly. To overcome this insert the reference in EndNote following the guidance and add it to your Word document. As a final step before submission, create a plain text version of your document. Go to the EndNote toolbar in Word and select 'Convert citations and bibliography' to 'Plain text' (this will be under 'Tools' on the Mac version of the toolbar). This will create a copy of your document which is divorced from EndNote so that you can make final tweaks to the references.

Find out more in the EndNote page in this guide: