Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Doing a systematic review

Guidance on the steps involved in doing a systematic review, and ways in which the Library can help.

What is a systematic review?

A systematic review...

  • Answers a focused (often clinical) question
  • Uses a comprehensive, reproducible search strategy
  • Identifies ALL relevant studies (published and unpublished)
  • Evaluates all results for inclusion and quality
  • Brings together the findings in an unbiased way and presents a balanced summary
  • To avoid bias is usually run by at least two researchers. Professional reviews will often involve large teams looking at complex research questions
  • Large studies can take months or even years to complete
Getting help

Your Academic Liaison Librarian can give advice on some of the steps in the process, such as choosing where to search (step 2), developing a search strategy (step 3), running & recording your search (step 4) and managing your search results (step 5). Refer to your supervisor for help with developing your protocol, evaluating the studies and writing up the review.

How does it differ from a systematic literature search?

You may be asked to do a systematic review, when what they actually want you to do is a systematic review of the literature. There are few key differences.

Systematic review Systematic literature review
Brings together the results of studies to answer a specific question Provides a subjective summary of the literature on a topic
Extensive search covering published and grey literature Thorough search of published literature
Involves a detailed protocol often developed using the PICO framework Includes a detailed search strategy
Usually involves three or more people to eliminate bias  Can be produced by a single person, so open to bias
Can take months or years to produce Weeks or months to produce


  • A detailed protocol
  • Systematic search strategy
  • Review of results against eligibility criteria
  • Evaluation of studies
  • Interpretation and presentation of results
  • Extensive reference list
  • Detailed appendices showing search strategies


  • Introduction
  • Methods - search strategy
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Long reference list

Summary adapted from: Kysh, L. (n.d.) What's in a name? The difference between a systematic review and a literature review and why it matters. URL: [9 April 2018]

Other types of review

Other types of review

There are many other types of review including:

  • Scoping review
    An initial assessment of the size and scope of research literature on a topic. Can be the first step in a systematic review.
  • Rapid review
    Uses systematic review methods to search and critically appraise existing research to find out what is already known about a topic.
  • Meta-analysis
    A statistical approach to combining the data derived from from a systematic review.
  • Narrative review
    Uses description rather than statistics to analyse the findings from relevant primary studies.

For a more comprehensive overview of review types see the page below from Duke University:

Systematic reviews summarised

The following videos offer two explanations of systematic reviews and what's involved in doing them.