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Typography and graphic communication: Citing references

A guide to finding information in typography and graphic communication. Includes links to key resources and sources of help.

Whenever you refer to another person's work in your own essay, dissertation or article you must acknowledge them and give full details of your source. You risk being accused of plagiarism if you fail to do so.

Typography doesn't have a specified referencing style. In general you should choose to use either a footnote or author-date style - but don't mix the two in a single piece of work! There is guidance for students taking TY1HG1 and TY1PRI on suitable author-date and footnote styles in BlackBoard and in the box below. You will be working on a range of written submissions in Part 2 and Part 3, including your dissertations. The Typography department encourage you to develop a working knowledge of how to reference appropriately so that you can apply it to all written work that requires referencing.

For general information on referencing, including an explanation of different citation systems, and guidance on citing specific types of publication, see our Citing references guide.

For help with citing specific types of publication contact your subject librarian (see below)

For advice on using references in your work, and how to use them to support your arguments, consult the guidance on the Study Advice website or make an appointment with them.

Get help from your liaison librarian

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Natalie Guest
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Get my help with finding relevant books and articles for your research, help with accessing library materials and collections, referencing and reference management software.

Email me with your question or book an appointment

0118 3783415
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EndNote

EndNote logoWhen you do your dissertation you could consider using EndNote to manage your references. This bibliographic management package can be used to store references, and then insert the citation in your Word document, automatically building the bibliography for you in the correct style.

Find out more on our EndNote webpages:

For information on other options for electronic management of your references see our guide to Managing references:

Referencing for Typography students - summary

This guidance is specifically for students taking modules TY1HG1: History of graphic communication 1 and TY1PRI: Printing and printmaking and is taken from the guides in BlackBoard for these modules.

Create your bibliography
This is a single list, at the end of your document, of all the sources you referred to in researching it, arranged in alphabetical order of the authors' surname. You don’t have to have referred to all of the texts in your bibliography in the main body of your essay/paper/report – however, you should only list sources which were useful/relevant and so it is likely that you will have referred specifically to most of them. Sources have to be listed with certain details in a specific order - More detail in the citation examples box

 

Choose your citation style
When referencing books, articles or other items you've consulted, you need a citation in the text to indicate which item you want to acknowledge. You can do this with using either footnotes OR author-date (author-date is sometimes also referred to as Harvard or in-text referencing.)
 

Footnotes: Each time you reference something add a footnote number (superscript and after the punctuation) in the text, and a corresponding number in the footer of the page where you put the details of the source you are referencing.1 Numbers should be sequential in the order they appear - use a new number for each time you reference (so numbers are never repeated.) More details in the Footnotes box 

Author-Date / In-text referencing: Each time you reference something put brackets in the text with the author's surname, date of publication and page numbers (Guest 2020: 42-49). More details in the Author-Date / In-text referencing box

 

It's important not to mix these styles - pick one and use it throughout that piece of work!

Footnotes

In the main text you need to add a footnote number for every reference. This should be a superscript number, which usually comes at the end of the sentence, where it should be positioned after the punctuation. Footnotes should be sequential, and the numbers should never be repeated.

Guidance on how to insert footnotes in Word

The first time you refer to a source in a footnote you should include exactly the same information, in the same order, as your bibliography entry, but with the addition of the specific page number(s) that you are referring to.1 Subsequent references to the same source should use a short version, which gives just the name, date, main title, and page number(s).2 Don’t use Latin abbreviations like ibid – most readers don’t know what these mean!

At the end of your piece of work you need a Bibliography - see the Bibliography box for more detail

 

1 Ing, J. (1988). Johann Gutenberg and his Bible, New York: The Typophiles, pp.10–14
2 Ing, J. (1988). Johann Gutenberg and his Bible, pp.12–16

Author-Date / In text

For this kind of referencing you need to put the author’s name, date, and page number(s) in the main text at the appropriate point (Ing 1998: 10–14). If you are you are referring to a particular idea or quoting directly you must give the relevant page number(s). Sometimes it doesn’t make sense to include the author’s name, because you have used it elsewhere in the sentence, e.g.

Lonsdale’s (2014: 30) review of legibility research highlights how understanding research can ‘help practitioners to make educated choices and produce user-orientated design outcomes.’


If you are discussing an author’s work in a particular text more generally you may not need to give the specific page number:

Lonsdale (2014) provides a comprehensive overview of legibility research and its implications for typographic practice.

 

At the end of your piece of work you need a Bibliography - see the Bibliography box for more detail

Citation examples

For some books you might need to add additional information between the Title and City of publication:

  • editor, compiler or translator, if any
  • series, if any, plus volume number in the series; do not italicize the series name
  • edition, if not the first
  • number of volumes if more than one

Book
Author, A.N. (date), Title of publication: subtitle, City of publication: Name of publisher

Bibliography: Ivins, W.M., Jr. (1969), Prints and visual communication, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
In-text citation: (Ivins, 1969: 42–43)
OR
Long footnote (first reference): Ivins, W.M., Jr. (1969), Prints and visual communication, Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, pp.42–43
Short footnote (subsequent references): Ivins, W.M., Jr. (1969), Prints and visual communication, pp.42–43

 

Book with an editor rather than an author
Editor, A.N., ed. (date), Title of publication: subtitle, City of publication: Name of publisher

Bibliography: Laranjo, F., ed. (2020), Modes of criticism 5, Design systems, Eindhoven: Onomatopee
In-text citation: (Laranjo, 2020: 17–42)
OR
Long footnote (first reference): Laranjo, F., ed. (2020), Modes of criticism 5, Design systems, Eindhoven: Onomatopee, pp.17–42
Short footnote (subsequent references): Laranjo, F., ed. (2020), Modes of criticism 5, Design systems, pp.17–42

 

Book with two authors:
Author, A.N. and Other, A.N. (date), Title of publication: subtitle, City of publication: Name of publisher

Bibliography: Purvis, A.W. and Jong, C.D. (2019), The enduring legacy of Weimar: graphic design & new typography, London: Prestel Publishing
In-text citation: (Purvis and Jong, 2019: 42–48)
OR
Long footnote (first reference): Purvis, A.W. and Jong, C.D. (2019), The enduring legacy of Weimar: graphic design & new typography, London: Prestel Publishing, pp.42–48 
Short footnote (subsequent references): Purvis, A.W. and Jong, C.D. (2019), The enduring legacy of Weimar: graphic design & new typography, pp.42–48

 

Book with three or more authors:
Author, A.N, et al (date), Title of publication: subtitle, City of publication: Name of publisher

Bibliography: Chermayeff, I, et al (2011), Identity: basic principles of identity design in the iconic trademarks of Chermayeff & Geismar, New York: Print Publishing
In-text citation: (Chermayeff et al, 2011: 42–53)
OR
Long footnote (first reference): Chermayeff, I, et al (2011), Identity: basic principles of identity design in the iconic trademarks of Chermayeff & Geismar, New York: Print Publishing, pp.42–53
Short footnote (subsequent references): Chermayeff, I, et al (2011), Identity: basic principles of identity design in the iconic trademarks of Chermayeff & Geismar, pp.42–53

 

Chapters in books:
If you are referencing a book with chapters by different authors you need to name them and the editors and give the title of the chapter. Structure is similar to entries for periodicals (see below):

Author, A.N. (date), ‘Title of chapter’, in Editor, A.N., and Editor, A.N., eds, Title of publication: subtitle, City of publication: Name of publisher, pp.xx–xx.

Bibliography: Egger, V. (2015), 'Designing inclusive information spaces', in Frascara, J., ed., Information design as principled action: making information accessible, relevant, understandable and usable, Champaign, Illinois: Common Ground Publishing, pp.84–93
In-text citation: (Egger, 2015: 84–93)
OR
Long footnote (first reference): Bibliography: Egger, V. (2015), 'Designing inclusive information spaces', in Frascara, J., ed., Information design as principled action: making information accessible, relevant, understandable and usable, Champaign, Illinois: Common Ground Publishing, pp.84–93
Short footnote (subsequent references): Bibliography: Egger, V. (2015), 'Designing inclusive information spaces', in Frascara, J., ed., Information design as principled action: making information accessible, relevant, understandable and usable, pp.84–93

 

Websites:
For websites you should add some additional information the URL (the address of the web page, omitting http://www.) and the date when the website was accessed (i.e. when you looked at it). Often there will be no publisher or city of publication – just leave these out. Where there is no year use ‘n.d.’ for ‘no date’. If there is no author then use the name of whoever is responsible for the website (i.e. the company or organisation). The basic structure should be as follows:

Author, A.N. (date), Title in italic: subtitle, also in italic, City of publication: Name of publisher; website.addre.ss (accessed day Month year)

Bibliography: May, A. (2018), The one-pull press; makerpress.co.uk/thegutenberg-press (accessed 19 October 2020)
In-text citation: (May, 2018)
OR
Long footnote (first reference): May, A. (2018), The one-pull press; makerpress.co.uk/thegutenberg-press (accessed 19 October 2020)
Short footnote (subsequent references): May, A. (2018), The one-pull press; makerpress.co.uk/thegutenberg-press

 

Periodical articles / Journal articles: 
These are publications such as journals, magazines, and newspapers which are published repeatedly, i.e. daily, weekly, monthly, or annually. For these you should not include the city of publication and name of publisher but will need to add

  • The title of the article
  • Volume and/or issue number
  • The full page range for the article

Entries should be structured as follows:

Author, A.N. (date), ‘Title of article’, Title of journal, XX, pp.xx–xx

Bibliography: Boorsch, S. and Orenstein, N.M. (1997), 'The print in the North: the age of Albrecht Dürer and Lucas van Leyden', The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 54:4, pp.13–60
In-text citation: (Boorsch and Orenstein, 1997: 37)
OR
Long footnote (first reference): Boorsch, S. and Orenstein, N.M. (1997), 'The print in the North: the age of Albrecht Dürer and Lucas van Leyden', The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 54:4, p.37
Short footnote (subsequent references): Boorsch, S. and Orenstein, N.M. (1997), 'The print in the North', p.37

 

Audio-visual sources:

For these you should name the creator(s), naming their specific roles if relevant and using a company name if there are no individual names. Then give the year of publication and the title of the work in italic followed by the medium/format in square brackets. Include other information if available (e.g. city of publication, name of publisher, web address and date accessed): For episodic sources give the episode name in italic and
the programme/series name in roman.

Bibliography: BBC (2008), Stephen Fry and the Gutenberg press, [DVD], British Broadcasting Corporation. 
In-text citation: (BBC, 2008)
OR
Long footnote (first reference): BBC (2008), Stephen Fry and the Gutenberg press, [DVD], British Broadcasting Corporation. 
Short footnote (subsequent references): BBC (2008), Stephen Fry and the Gutenberg press

Bibliography

This is a single list, at the end of your document, of all the sources you referred to in researching it. Note that it is not a ‘list of references’ – you don’t have to have referred to all of the texts in your bibliography in the main body of your essay/paper/report – however, you should only list sources which were useful/relevant and so it is likely that you will have referred specifically to most of them.

Your bibliography will be the same irrespective of whether you have used Footnotes or Author-Date Your bibliography should:

  • Be a single list of all sources under the heading ‘Bibliography’
  • Be in alphabetical order by author’s surname
  • Capitalise titles in sentence case (i.e. capitalise the first word and proper nouns).
  • Note that the names of periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers) are considered proper nouns
  • Follow the structure and format outlined below consistently for every entry

An example bibliography:

Bibliography

Edible Reading (2015), Shed; ediblereading.com/2015/06/05/shed (accessed 16 October 2017)
Ing, J. (1988), Johann Gutenberg and his Bible, New York: The Typophiles
Ivy, G.S. (1958), ‘The bibliography of the manuscript book’, in Wormald, F. and Wright, C.E., eds, The English library before 1700, London: Athlone Press, pp.32–65
Kermode, M. and Mayo, S. (25 September 2020), Ron Howard, Rebuilding Paradise, Becky, Monsoon and Miss Juneteenth [podcast], Kermode and Mayo’s film review, BBC Radio 5
McGrady, P., prod. and dir. (2008), The machine that made us [DVD], Wavelength Films
McGrady, P., (2008), The machine that made us [video file], Wavelength Films https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQ88yC35NjI (accessed 5 October 2020)
Mosley, J. (2009), A lost Caslon: Long Primer No.1; typefoundry.blogspot.co.uk/2009/07 (accessed 16 October 2017)
Rudin, S., prod. and Fincher, D., dir. (2010), The social network [motion picture], Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Scholderer, V. (1959), ‘Red printing in early books’, Gutenberg Jahrbuch, pp.105–7
Steinberg, S.H. (1996), Five hundred years of printing, new ed., revised by John Trevitt London: British Library and New Castle, DA: Oak Knoll
Wellisch, H.W. (1986), ‘The oldest printed indexes’, The Indexer, 15, pp.73–82