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Citing references

Guidance on citing references for students at the University of Reading

Citation examples

This page lists the details you will need to include when writing citations for various types of source material. The examples given are in the 'Cite Them Right' version of the Harvard style.

For each example:

  • Reference list refers to the way it would be cited in your reference list or bibliography when using Harvard style.
  • In-text citation refers to the way that a work would be cited either in the body of the text or in footnotes when using Harvard style.

Your School/Department might use a different style, or a different version of Harvard. Always check your course handbook for the exact formatting preferred in your School. If there isn't a preferred format, choose one and use it throughout. Even if your course prefers Harvard, this is a style rather than a set of rules, so details of punctuation and text formatting may differ.

Note that, whatever the type of source, the title of the containing volume (i.e. the book, journal, collection etc) should always be marked out, usually by being put in italics but sometimes underlined. Whichever you use, be consistent and use the same formatting throughout your citations.

If the source you want to cite is not listed here consult the following book:

Alternatively ask your Academic Liaison Librarian or a Study Adviser for guidance:

The top five: 1. Book

Elements to include:

  1. Authors or Editors
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title (in italics)
  4. Edition (if applicable)
  5. Place published
  6. Publisher
  7. Series and volume number (if applicable)

Examples

Authored book:

Reference list: Ashbourn, J. (2014) Biometrics in the new world: the cloud, mobile technology and pervasive identity. 2nd edn. London: Springer.

In-text citation: (Ashbourn, 2014)

Edited book:

Reference list: Nasta, S. and Stein, M.U. (ed.) (2020) The Cambridge history of Black and Asian British writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

In-text citation: (Nasta and Stein, 2020)

E-book:

Where an e-book looks like a printed book (usually PDFs) with publication information and page numbers - cite it in the same way as a printed book (above). Where specific pagination details are not available use the information you have e.g. %, loc, chapter/page/paragraph. Also add the DOI or web address to the full reference.

Reference list: Prior, H. (2020) Away with the penguins. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Away-Penguins-Hazel-Prior-ebook (Accessed: 20 September 2021).

In-text citation: (Prior, 2020, 74%)

Reference list: Faulkner, W. (2000) Light in August. Available at: https://www.vlebooks.com/vleweb/product/openreader?id=UniReading&isbn=9781446485521 (Accessed: 10 September 2021).

In-text citation: (Faulkner, 2000, ch. 7, p. 105)

The top 5: 2. Journal article

The information you include in the reference will depend on whether the journal is published in print (but uploaded for electronic access), only published online, or is a version found in an institutional repository. You can usually tell the difference by looking for page numbers. If each article in the journal begins at page 1, or has no page number at all, it is likely to be an online-only journal. 

Elements to include:

  1. Authors
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Article title (in single quotation marks)
  4. Journal title (in italics, capitalise the first letter of each word except linking words)
  5. Volume number
  6. Issue number (if present, in round brackets)
  7. Page numbers or reference number (Include the page numbers of the whole article when writing your full citation, not just the pages you have referred to)
  8. DOI or web link for online-only articles

See the examples in the other tabs in this box.

Examples for articles in print copies of journal articles or a print journal accessed online (e.g. on JSTOR)

Traditionally all articles were published in print format in issues which then formed part of a volume and this way of citing them (giving volume, issue and page numbers) has been retained even though most are now available online. There is no need to include the DOI or web address for articles with volume numbers and page numbers even if you accessed them online.

A single author:

Reference list: Gulddal, J. (2020) 'That deep underground savage instinct: narratives of sacrifice and retribution in Agatha Christie's Appointment with Death', Textual Practice, 34(11), pp. 1803-1821.

In-text citation: (Gulddal, 2020)

Two authors - include them both separated by and or &:

Reference list: Thomas, D. and Tian, L. (2021) 'Hits from the Bong: the impact of recreational marijuana dispensaries on property values', Regional Science and Urban Economics, 87, pp. 103655.

In-text citation: (Thomas and Tian, 2021)

Three authors - include them all, separate the first two with a comma and use and or & before the third author:

Reference list: Abu Salem, H., Gemail, K.S. and Nosair, A.M. (2021) 'A multidisciplinary approach for delineating wastewater flow paths in shallow groundwater aquifers: A case study in the southeastern part of the Nile Delta, Egypt', Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 236, pp. 103701.

In-text citation: (Abu Salem, Gemail and Nosair, 2021)

Four or more authors - include them all in the full reference, but for the in-text citation you can just state the first author, followed by et al.

Reference list: Moise, L., Gutiérrez, A.H., Khan, S., Tan, S., Ardito, M., Martin, W.D. & De Groot, A.S. (2020) 'New immunoinformatics tools for swine: designing epitope-driven vaccines, predicting vaccine efficacy, and making vaccines on demand', Frontiers in Immunology, 11, pp. 563362-563362.

In-text citation: (Moise et al., 2020)

Examples for online-only journals

If the journal is ONLY available online, you should include the DOI or the URL in the full reference. Online-only journal articles may not have page numbers or reference numbers, or pagination for each article will begin with '1'. The rules for in-text citations are the same as for print articles.

Article with a DOI:

Reference list: Tiwari, S. and Ambinakudige, S. (2020) 'Streetscapes and stereotyping: streets named after Martin Luther King, Jr., and the geographies of racial identity', GeoJournal, doi:10.1007/s10708-020-10291-4.

Article without a DOI:

Reference list: Farrell, L.G. (2013) 'Challenging assumptions about IT skills in higher education'. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 6. Available at: http://www.aldinhe.ac.uk/ojs/index.php?journal=jldhe&page=article&op=view&path[]=173&path[]=138 (Accessed: 23 June 2021)

Examples for versions of articles found in repositories

Authors will often put versions of their articles into institutional repositories to comply with funding requirements to make the research Open Access. These may be pre-print versions (before peer review has taken place) or post-print versions, also known as author accepted manuscripts (the final version of the text, following peer review, to be published in the journal).

Pre-print example

Allen, R. J., Horowitz, L. W., Naik, V., Oshima, N., O'Connor, F., Turnock, S., Shim, S., Le Sager, P., Van Noije, T., Tsigaridis, K., Bauer, S. E., Sentman, L. T., John, J. G., Broderick, C., Deushi, M., Folberth, G., Fujimori, S. and Collins, B.  (2021) 'Significant climate benefits from near-term climate forcer mitigation in spite of aerosol reductions'. To be published in Environmental Research Letters [Preprint]. Available at: http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/view/creators/90004988.html (Accessed: 24 June 2021)

Post-print

For post-prints which are identical in content to the published version, you should cite the published version instead of citing the repository version.

The top five: 3. Chapter in an edited collection

Elements to include:

  1. Chapter author(s)
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Chapter title in single quotation marks
  4. 'in' followed by book author(s)/editor(s)
  5. Book title (in italics)
  6. Place published
  7. Publisher's name
  8. Chapter pagination

Include the page extent of the whole chapter when writing your full citation. Put just the pages you have referred to in the in-text citation.

Example:

Reference list: Singh, H., Khurana, L.K. and Singh, R. (2018) 'Pharmaceutical development', in Vohora, D. and Singh, G. (eds.) Pharmaceutical medicine and translational clinical research, London: Academic Press, pp.33-46.

In-text citation: (Singh, Khurana and Singh, 2018, p.35)

The top five: 4. Website

You can find many different types of information on the Internet. Check that the item you are referencing isn't a journal article, book chapter, or another type of publication which you should be citing in a different way.

Elements to include:

  1. Author (person or company that created the webpage)
  2. Year of publication or last update (in round brackets). Scroll to the bottom of the page but if there is no date put (no date)
  3. Page title (in italics)
  4. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)
Examples

Webpage created by a person

Reference list: Bologna, C. (2018) What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? Available at: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/what-happens-mindbody-homesick_us_5b201ebde4b09d7a3d77eee1 (Accessed: 24 June 2021)

In-text citation: (Bologna, 2018)

Webpage created by an organisation

Reference list: World Health Organization (2020) Salt reduction. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/salt-reduction (Accessed: 24 June 2021)

In-text citation: (World Health Organization, 2020)

Further guidance on referencing websites

Have a look at this Study Advice video tutorial (note that the format of the examples may not match the guidance given above):

The top five: 5. Secondary referencing

A secondary reference is used when you are referring to a source which you have not read yourself, but have seen quoted or read about in another source. Where possible, you should always try to read the original of anything you wish to refer to; otherwise you are relying on the author who cited the reference to have interpreted it correctly and not taken it out of context. Use the reference list at the end of the source you are reading to find details of the reference and search for it using the search boxes below.

Find books using the Enterprise catalogue

Just type in the first author's surname and a few words from the title.

Find journal articles using Summon

Just type in the first author's surname and first part of the article title.

If you can't get hold of the original source you'll need to do a secondary reference and you should make clear that you are not using the original source. Only include the source you have used in your list of references following the guidance for citing that type of publication. 

Different Schools/Departments might have different preferred ways of doing this, so do check any advice you are given or ask your course tutor if you are not sure. Otherwise, this is general guidance.

Examples

If the author quotes another source:

France (2003, quoted in Weingart et al., 2018) provides evidence that hospitals use internal reporting procedures to identify...

If the author summarises another source

In-text citation: According to France (2003, cited in Weingart et al., 2018), hospitals use internal reporting procedures to identify...

In both examples only the full reference for the article by Weingart et al. would be included in the reference list.

Archival material

Elements to include:

  1. Author, initials.
  2. Year (in round brackets)
  3. Title of document.
  4. Date (if avaialble)
  5. Collection name
  6. Document number.
  7. Name of archive
  8. Location of archive

In-text citation: (Author, Year)

Example

Reference list: Becket, S. (1974) Letter from Samuel Beckett to Vera Beckett. 1 January 1974. Letters from Samuel Beckett to Vera Beckett series BC MS 5411 B, University of Reading Special Collections, Reading.

In-text citation: (Beckett, 1974)

Artworks

Cite the item you have seen - if you have seen an artwork in a book or catalogue, reference that book or catalogue (use our Images examples.) If you have seen the painting or exhibition, cite that as follows; 

Exhibitions
  1. Title of exhibition (in italics)
  2. Year (in round brackets)
  3. [Exhibition]
  4. Location. Date(s) of exhibition

In-text citation: (Title of exhibition, Year)

Example: 

Reference list: Yayoi Kusama: Infinity mirror rooms (2021) [Exhibition]. Tate Modern. 18 May 2021-12 June 2022.

In-text citation: (Yayoi Kusama: Infinity mirror rooms, 2021)

 

Paintings / Drawings

Elements to include:

  1. Artist
  2. Year (in round brackets)
  3. Title of artwork (in italics)
  4. Medium (e.g. Sculpture, Mixed-media, Video installation, Oil on canvas, etc) in square brackets
  5. Institute or collection it belongs to.
  6. Location of collection - the city

or if you accessed it online

  1. DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In-text citation: (Artist, Year)

Example

Reference list: Bacon, F. (1943-4) Three studies for figures at the base of a crucifixion [Oil and pastel on board]. Tate Britain. London.

In-text citation: (Bacon1943-4)

OR if accessed online;

Reference list: Bacon, F. (1943-4) Three studies for figures at the base of a crucifixion [Oil and pastel on board]. Available at: www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/bacon-three-studies-for-figures-at-the-base-of-a-crucifixion-n06171 (Accessed: 1 July 2021). 

For examples of how to reference different artworks, photographs and more see the Cite them right e-book, Harvard referencing chapter under "Visual and artistic sources"; 

Company databases

Elements to include:

  1. Publishing organisation  
  2. Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets)  
  3. Title of extract (in italics)  
  4.  DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)
Example

Reference list: Bureau van Dijk (2020) Tesco plc company report. Available at: http://fame.bvdep.com (Accessed: 27 May 2021). 

In-text citation: (Bureau van Dijk, 2020)

Conference papers

Elements to include:
  1. Author of paper
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of paper (in single quotation marks)
  4. Title of conference proceedings: subtitle (in italics)
  5. Location and date of conference
  6. Place of publication: Publisher
  7. Page references for the paper
Example

Reference list: Jones, L. (2018) 'Polymer blends based on compact disc scrap', Proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference - Society of Plastics Engineers. San Francisco, May 6-9. Brookfield, CT: Society of Plastics Engineers. pp.236-254.

In-text citation: (Jones, 2018)

Film

You should include the following elements:

  1. Title of film (in italics)
  2. Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  3. Directed by
  4. [Feature film]
  5. Place of distribution: Distributor

In-text citation: (Title of film, Year)

Example:

Reference list: Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004) Directed by Michael Moore. [Feature film]. Santa Monica, CA: Lionsgate Films.

In-text citation: (Fahrenheit 9/11, 2004)

If you are citing a YouTube video please see the separate entry on YouTube

For examples of how to cite Films in different formats, please see the examples in the Cite them right e-book in the Harvard Referencing chapter, under "Audiovisual material";

You should include the following elements:

  1. Title of film (in italics)
  2. Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  3. Directed by
  4. DOI or Available at: Name of service
  5. (Accessed: date)

In-text citation: (Title of film, Year)

Example:

Reference list: Fatherhood (2021) Directed by Paul Weitz. Available at: Netflix (Accessed: 28 June 2021).

In-text citation: (Fatherhood, 2021)

For examples of how to cite Films in different formats, please see the examples in the Cite them right e-book in the Harvard Referencing chapter, under "Audiovisual material";

See our section on YouTube videos:

Government or corporate body publication/report

Elements to include:
  1. Name of issuing body
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title (in italics)
  4. Place of publication (if in print)
  5. Publisher (if in print)
  6. Series (in round brackets) - if applicable

If accessed online:

DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Examples

Print publication:

Reference list: Environment Agency (2020) The flood and coastal erosion risk management strategy action plan 2021. Bristol: Environment Agency.

In-text citation:  (Environment Agency, 2020)

Publication accessed online:

Reference list: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2016) Vitamin D and health. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/537616/SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_report.pdf (Accessed: 25 August 2021)

In-text citation:  (Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, 2016)

Images

Images that you have seen in books, articles or on websites should be cited in the same way you would cite the source of the image. Images, graphs, tables, illustrations and photographs are all included. Add the page number and figure / illustration number if there is one from the source item to your in-text citation (use the same terminology they do to number their illustrations, eg. illus., fig., diagram, table, plate etc.) 

Elements to include:

  1. Author
  2. Year of publication
  3. Page number and illustration number (from source, if available.)

You may wish to use the title / subject matter of the image in your sentence as in the example;

Example: 

Reference list: Glaser, M. and Ilić, M. (2017) The design of dissent. Beverly, MA: Rockport publishers.

In-text citation: The We Are Bullet Proof poster by Jon Key created a narrative of strength during Black Lives Matter (Glaser and Ilić, 2017, p. 261)

If the image is one you have created yourself, give a figure number and title in the caption and add (Source: the author) to show that it is your own work. The image on the left shows how you would do this;

You do not need to include it in the bibliography.

Legal and Parliamentary documents

Students studying Law

If you are studying Law, you will be expected to use the OSCOLA system of referencing. You will have advice on this from your School, and can find support on the Law guide:

Students studying other subjects

If you are not studying Law, but need to refer to legal or Parliamentary documents, the examples in this box give acceptable citation formats for commonly used materials in the Harvard style. We have concentrated on key UK legislative sources here. For guidance on citing other materials, and those from other jurisdictions, see the Cite Them Right guide:

For Bills from the House of Commons and House of Lords you should include the following elements:

  1. Title (in italics)
  2. Publication year (in round brackets)
  3. Parliament: House of Commons or Lords
  4. Bill no.
  5. Place of publication
  6. Publisher

Reference list:

Agriculture Bill (2019) Parliament: House of Commons, Bill no. 292. London: The Stationery Office.

In-text citation:

Mr Gove introduced the Agriculture Bill (2019)...

For Command Papers (including Green and White papers) you should include the following elements:

  1. Department
  2. Publication year (in round brackets)
  3. Title of report of consultation paper (in italics)
  4. Command Paper number (in round brackets) preceeded by Cmnd:
  5. Place of publication
  6. Publisher
  7. If accessed online replace 5 & 6 with DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Papers accessed online

Reference list:

Department for Work and Pensions (2021) Shaping Future Support: the Health and Disability Green Paper (Cmnd. 470). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/shaping-future-support-the-health-and-disability-green-paper (Accessed: 30 July 2021)

In-text citation:

(Department for Work and Pensions, 2021)

Papers accessed in print

Reference list:

Department of Social Security (2000) The Pension Credit: Consultation Paper (Cmnd. 4900). London: HMSO.

In-text citation:

(Department of Social Security, 2000)

Law reports (cases) before 2002

Include the following elements:

  1. Name of case (in single quotation marks)
  2. Publication year (in round brackets)
  3. Title of law report (in italics)
  4. Volume number
  5. Page numbers

Reference list:

'Bibby Cheshire v. Golden Wonder Ltd' (1972) Weekly Law Reports, 1, pp. 1487-1492.

In-text citation:

('Bibby Cheshire v. Golden Wonder Ltd', 1972)

Law reports (cases) from 2002

From 2002 cases have been given a neutral citation. This means that it isn't necessary to include details of the printed law report series in which it was published. When using this type of citation you must give details of the publication in which the case was reports or the database/website you used.

Include the following elements:

  1. Name of the parties involved in the case (in single quotation marks)
  2. Publication year (in round brackets)
  3. Court and case number
  4. Name of database or website (in italics)
  5. DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Reference list:

'Rees v. Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis' (2021) Court of Appeal (Civil Division), case 49. BAILII. Available at: https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/2021/49.html (Accessed: 30 July 2021) 

In-text citation:

('Rees v. Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis', 2021)

Hansard is the official record of the business of the Houses of the UK Parliament. This includes databases, speeches, answers and statements. References to Hansard follow a similar pattern to journal articles. Include the following:

  1. Name of speaker/author
  2. Publication year (in round brackets)
  3. Subject of debate or speech (in single quotation marks)
  4. Hansard: Name of House of Parliament (in italics)
  5. Debates/written statement/Westminster Hall or petitions (in italics)
  6. Day and month
  7. Volume number, column number or page number
  8. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Reference list:

Bonnar, S. (2021) 'Ethics and human rights: climate change', Hansard: House of Commons debates, 14 July, 699, c. 355. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2021-07-14/debates/FED21B9A-F4C2-4437-8CFD-3A08E5929C48/EthicsAndHumanRightsClimateChange (Accessed: 30 July 2021)

In-text citation:

Steve Bonnar MP (2021) asked if the UK Government would create a climate justice fund.

To cite papers from the House of Parliament or House of Lords include the following elements:

  1. Parliament, House of...
  2. Publication year (in round brackets)
  3. Title (in italics) including the Session dates if appropriate.
  4. Session dates and Paper number (in round brackets) preceeded by HC or HL as appropriate.
    Note that to distinguish House of Lords papers from the House of Commons paper with the same number the Paper number is enclosed in an extra set of round brackets e.g. (HL 2002-2003, (254))
  5. Place of publication:
  6. Publisher.

Reference list:

Parliament, House of Commons (2004) The English national stadium project at Wembley, Session 2003-2004. (HC 2003-2004, 254). London: The Stationery Office.

In-text citation:

(Parliament, House of Commons, 2004) 

When referencing Acts of Parliament you should use the short title of the Act and year it was enacted. It is not necessary to include the year in brackets as it would duplicate the year in the title. Include the following elements:

  1. Title of Act - including year and chapter (in italics)
  2. Country/Jurisdiction (only required if referencing legislation from more than one country)
  3. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Reference list:

Food Safety Act 1990, c. 16. Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1990/16/contents (Accessed: 20 July 2021)

In-text citation:

As stipulated in the Food Safety Act 1990...

When citing Statutory Instruments (SIs) include the following information:

  1. Name/Title and year (in italics)
  2. SI year and number (in round brackets)
  3. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Reference list:

Children (Performances and Activities) (Wales) Regulations 2015 (SI 2015/1757). Available at: URL: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/wsi/2015/1757/contents/made (Accessed: 23 July 2021)

In-text citation:

Referring to the Children (Performances and Activities) (Wales) Regulations 2015...

Literary texts

These examples use Harvard style. If you are studying in English Literature, you will have separate guidance from your department on using MHRA style for referencing. See the link below for more information:

To cite a novel use the same format as for an authored book

Elements to include:

  1. Playwright
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title (in italics)
  4. Edition information 
  5. Place of publication
  6. Publisher
  7. Act
  8. Scene
  9. Line
Example

Reference list: Shakespeare, W. (2008) Twelth night or what you will. Edited by Elam, K. London: Cengage, 1.3: 13

In-text citation: (Shakespeare 2008, 1:3, 13).

Elements to include:

  1. Author of the poem
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of poem in single quotation marks
  4. 'in' followed by book author(s)/editor(s)/compiler(s) 
  5. Book title (in italics)
  6. Place of publication
  7. Publisher
  8. Poem pagination

Include the page extent of the whole poem when writing your full citation. Put just the pages you have referred to in the in-text citation.

Example

Reference list: Orr, J. (2002) 'The dying African', in Basker, J. (ed.) Amazing grace: an anthology of poems about slavery, 1660-1810. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 533-535.

In-text citation: (Orr, 2002, p. 533)

Maps

Elements to include:
  1. Name of author or issuing body
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of map (in italics)
  4. Sheet number or tile (if applicable)
  5. Scale (if available)
  6. Place of publication (if in print)
  7. Publisher (if in print)
  8. Series or section in Digimap if appropriate (in round brackets)

If accessed online:

DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Examples

Print maps

Reference list: Ordnance Survey (2012) Reading & Windsor: Henley-on-Thames & Bracknell, sheet 175, 1:50 000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey (Landranger series).

In-text citation: (Ordnance Survey, 2012)

Reference list: Dower, J. (1832) A map shewing the parliamentary representation of England & Wales, according as the same are settled by the Reform Act passed 7th June 1832, 1 inch to 35 miles. London: J. Gardner.

In-text citation: (Dower, 1832)

Online map

Reference list: Ordnance Survey (2020) Whiteknights, Reading, 1:10 000. (Digimap Ordnance Survey) Available at http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/ (Accessed: 20 June 2021)

In-text citation: (Ordnance Survey, 2020)

If you have any queries about citing maps, contact Judith Fox, Map Librarian j.a.fox@reading.ac.uk

Market research report

Elements to include:

  1. Organisation / author.
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of report (in italics)
  4. Available at: URL (if you have to login with a username and password to access the report, then use the homepage of the database or a permalink) (Accessed: date)
Example

Reference list: Mintel (2019) Sports and energy drinks - UK.  Available at: http://www.academic.mintel.com (Accessed: 5th July 2021).

In-text citation: (Mintel, 2019)

Newspaper articles

Elements to include:
  1. Author’(s) surname and initials
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  4. Title of newspaper (in italics - capitalize first word of each word in title except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  5. Edition if required (in round brackets)
  6. Day and month
  7. Page reference if available

If accessed online: DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Examples

Printed article:

Reference list: Graham, K. (2020) 'The biggest tree and the smallest axe', The Guardian, 31 August, pp.21-22.

In-text citation: (Graham, 2020)

Online article:

Reference list: Pinkstone, J. (2021) 'Mountains set the pace of evolution, not climate change, say scientists', The Daily Telegraph, 2 September. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2021/09/02/mountains-set-pace-evolution-not-climate-change-say-scientists/ (Accessed: 3 September 2021)

In-text citation: (Pinkstone, 2021)

Elements to include:

  1. Title of newspaper (in italics - capitalize first word of each word in title except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  4. Day and month
  5. Page reference if available

Note: if you are using the online version of a newspaper, which often varies from the print edition, you would omit page reference and instead include Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Examples

Printed article:

Reference list: The Daily Telegraph (2021) 'Walking on wooden floors could help to generate power', 2 September, p. 12.

In-text citation: (The Daily Telegraph, 2021, p. 12)

Online article:

Reference list: The Guardian (2021) 'We cannot allow inequality to increase within the education system', 2 September. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/editorials/inequality-education-exams-schools-private-b1900252.html (Accessed: 4 September 2021)

In-text citation: (The Guardian, 2021)

 

Patent

Elements to include:
  1. Inventor
  2. Year the patent came into force (in round brackets)
  3. Title (in italics)
  4. Authorising organisation
  5. Patent number
  6. If online - Available at: URL (Accessed: date)
Examples

Online patent

Reference list: Cox, A. and Lee, J. (2021) Water remediation system UK Intellectual Property Office Patent no. GB2591282A. Available at: https://worldwide.espacenet.com/ (Accessed: 2 September 2021)

In-text citation: (Cox and Lee, 2021)

Printed patent

Reference list: Kruger, L.H. (1989) Degradation of granular starch US Patent no.: US4838944.

In-text citation: (Kruger, 1989)

Personal communications

If you have obtained information through a personal communication (e.g. an interview, phone call, email or conversation), you do not need to include it in your reference list. However you should acknowledge it as a source. A good way to do this is by adding a footnote with the details, e.g.:

In an email to the author, Barry Purves acknowledged the influence his Classics degree had had on the animation.1

1 B. Purves, personal communication, 20 July 2005.

If you prefer, you can abbreviate to pers.comm.

 

If you do decide you want to include it in your reference list you should use the following format:

  1. Sender / speaker / author
  2. Year of communication (in round brackets)
  3. Medium of communication.
  4. Receiver of communication.
  5. Day / month of communication.
Example

Reference list: Walters, B. (2021) Conversation with Lucy Atkins, 30 July

Reference list: Walters, B. (2021) Skype conversation with Lucy Atkins, 30 July

In-text citation: (Walters, 2021)

Radio programme

You should include the following elements:

  1. Title of programme (in italics)
  2. Year of broadcast (in round brackets)
  3. Radio station
  4. Date of transmission (DD Month) and time

In-text citation: (Programme title, Year)

Example:

Reference list: Kermode and Mayo's Film Review (2021) BBC Radio 5 Live, 25 June, 14:30.

In-text citation: Presenters and Wittertainees say hello to Jason Isaacs (Kermode and Mayo's Film Review, 2021)

You should include the following elements:

  1. Title of programme (in italics)
  2. Year of original broadcast (in round brackets)
  3. Radio station
  4. Date and time of original transmission (if available)
  5. DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

In-text citation: (Programme title, Year)

Example:

Bibliography: Elvenquest (2011) BBC Radio 4, 7 November 09:00. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b016vn8f (Accessed: 2 July 2021).

In-text citation: (Elvenquest, 2011)

Sacred texts

Elements to include:

  1. Book
  2. Chapter
  3. Verse
  4. Holy Bible (not in italics)
  5. Version

Example:

Reference list: John 14: 27, Holy Bible. New International Version

In-text citation: (John 14: 27)

Elements to include:

  1. Quran (not in italics)
  2. Surah or chapter
  3. Verse
  4. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  5. Translated by ...
  6. Place of publication
  7. Publisher

Example

Reference list: Quran 20: 26 (2015) Translated by M. A. S. Abdel Haleem. Oxford: Oxford University Press

In-text citation: (Quran 20: 26) 

Elements to include:

  1. Torah (not in italics)
  2. Book
  3. Chapter
  4. Verse

Example:

Reference list: Torah. Devarim 4: 2

In-text citation: (Devarim 4: 2)

Social media

Elements to include:

  1. Author (if it's available, if not use the title)
  2. Year the page was published, or last updated (in round brackets)
  3. Title of the page (in italics)
  4. [Facebook]
  5. Day/month of posted message
  6. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)
Examples

Reference list: Financial Times (2021) The London luxury property market was slowed down by the pandemic, but it is likely to bounce back soon. [Facebook] 2 July. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/financialtimes/posts/10159435194305750 (Accessed: 6 July 2021).

In-text citation: (Financial Times, 2021) 

Elements to include:

  1. Author (Instagram account/poster)
  2. Year posted (in round brackets)
  3. Title of post in single quotation marks
  4. [Instagram]
  5. Day/month of posted message
  6. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)
Examples

Reference list: Financial Times (2021) 'Housing markets shrug off pandemic.' [Instagram] 23 June. Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/CQeJ0IrhQXM/ (Accessed: 5 July 2021). 

In-text citation: (Financial Times, 2021)

Elements to include:

  1. Author
  2. Year tweet posted (in round brackets)
  3. Full text of tweet, unless very long, then use ellipsis to shorten.
  4. [Twitter]
  5. Day/month tweet posted
  6. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)
Examples

Reference list: Harvard Business Review [@HarvardBiz] (2021) In this large-scale study of military performance measures, negative words — like selfish, passive, and scattered — were much more frequently applied to women. [Twitter] 4 July.  Available at: https://twitter.com/HarvardBiz/status/1411692276888317952 (Accessed: 6 July 2021).

In-text citation: (Harvard Business Review, 2021)

See our section on YouTube videos:

Teaching materials (posted on Blackboard)

It is strongly recommended that you use published sources such as books and journal articles in your assignments instead of materials posted by academics on Blackboard. Always check with the academic who has set the assignment whether you are allowed to include citations for their materials in your work.

PowerPoint presentations

Elements to include:

  1. Author or lecturer
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Title of presentation (in single quotation marks)
  4. [PowerPoint presentation]
  5. Module code: module title (in italics)
  6. Institution
  7. Available at: https://bb.reading.ac.uk (Accessed: date)

Examples

Reference list: Hartl, F. (2021) 'Advanced electrochemical and electroanalytical methods' [PowerPoint presentation]. CH4AN1: Advanced analytical techniques for the molecular sciences. University of Reading. Available at: https://bb.reading.ac.uk (Accessed: 6 July 2021)

In-text citation: (Hartl, 2021)

Recorded lecture

Elements to include:

  1. Author or lecturer
  2. Year (in round brackets)
  3. Title of lecture (in single quotation marks)
  4. Medium [in square brackets]
  5. Module code: module title (in italics)
  6. Institution
  7. Day/month
  8. Available at: https://bb.reading.ac.uk (Accessed: date)

Examples

Reference list: Bull, S. (2021) 'Anatomy of taste' [Recorded lecture]. FB3QSF: Advanced food quality and sensory. University of Reading. 21 February. Available at: https://bb.reading.ac.uk (Accessed: 1 July 2021)

In-text citation: (Bull, 2021)

For examples of other types of teaching materials, please see the examples in the Cite them right e-book in the Harvard Referencing chapter, under "Teaching materials";

Technical standards e.g. British Standards

Elements to include:
  1. Name of authorising organisation
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  3. Number and title of standard (in italics)
  4. Place of publication (if in print)
  5. Publisher (if in print)
  6. Available at: URL (if online)
  7. Date accessed (if online)
Examples

Print standard:

Reference list: British Standards Institution (2020) BS ISO 21543:2020: Milk and milk products - guidelines for the application of near infrared spectroscopy. London: British Standards Institution.

In-text citation: (British Standards Institution, 2020)

Online standard

Reference list: British Standards Institution (2020) BS ISO 21543:2020: Milk and milk products - guidelines for the application of near infrared spectroscopy. Available at: https://bsol-bsigroup-com.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/Bibliographic/BibliographicInfoData/000000000030394059 (Accessed: 6 July 2021)

In-text citation:  (British Standards Institution, 2020)

Thesis

Elements to include:
  1. Name of author
  2. Year of submission (in round brackets)
  3. Title of thesis (in Italics)
  4. Type of degree (eg Ph.D. or M.Sc.)
  5. Name of the University or awarding body
  6. Country
  7. If accessed online: DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date)
Example

Reference list: Lalani, B. (2017) Economics and adoption of conservation agriculture in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique.. Ph.D. Thesis. Reading University: U.K.

In-text citation: (Lalani, 2017)

YouTube videos

Elements to include:

  1. Author (name or person/organisation posting the video)
  2. Year video posted (in round brackets)
  3. Title of film or programme (in italics)
  4. Date uploaded (if available)
  5. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

If you need to refer to a specific point in a video, use the format minutes:seconds in your in-text citation to note the time code e.g. (TEDx Talks, 2018, 2:34).

Examples

Reference list: TEDx Talks (2018) The Power of an entrepreneurial mindset: Bill Roche. 20 May. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ihs4VFZWwn4 (Accessed: 5 July 2021).

In-text citation: (TEDx Talks, 2018)