Skip to Main Content

Languages and Cultures: Citing references

A guide to finding information in Languages and Cultures. Includes links to key resources and sources of help.

Get help from your academic liaison librarian

Profile Photo
Natalie Guest
She / Her
Get my help with finding relevant books and articles for your research, help with accessing library materials and collections, referencing and reference management software.

Email me with your question or book an appointment

0118 3783415

Referencing non-English language material and translations

It's very likely that you'll need to reference non-English language material, and translations in your work.

Further help

For help with citing specific types of publication contact your subject librarian.

For advice on using references in your work, and how to use them to support your arguments, consult the guidance on the Study Advice website or make an appointment with them.


EndNote logoWhen you do your dissertation you could consider using EndNote to manage your references. This bibliographic management package can be used to store references, and then insert the citation in your Word document, automatically building the bibliography for you in the correct style.

Find out more on our EndNote webpages:

For information on other options for electronic management of your references see our guide to Managing references:

Referencing guide welcome

The Department of Languages and Cultures allows you to choose from 2 forms of referencing - author-date referencing using the Harvard referencing style, or footnote references using ('Oxford style').

Whenever you refer to another person's work in your own essay, dissertation or article you must acknowledge them and give full details of your source. You risk being accused of plagiarism if you fail to do so.

You may wish to use a footnote-style to provide a full reference at the bottom of the page, this can be useful when referencing primary sources. In some cases, an author-date referencing style such as Harvard can be helpful. You must not combine referencing styles within the same assignment. Choose a referencing style, and use this in your assignments consistently.

Details of how to use Oxford style referencing are provided in the Department’s referencing guide (below,) and are based on the MHRA format.

How to select a referencing style?

If you are unable to view this video on YouTube it is also available on YuJa - view the Which referencing style should I use? video on YuJa (University username and password required)

Harvard referencing (author-date)

Where to find guidance on Harvard referencing

Use the Department of Languages and Cultures essay criteria and reference guide above for the primary guidance on how to format Harvard book, journal, book chapter and website references for your bibliography.

Note that because Harvard is a 'style' rather than a system or set of rules, the preferred punctuation and formatting of the text may differ between different publications or websites. For example - the Department guidance differs from Harvard guidance on the Library citing references guide, which uses the Cite them Right version of Harvard, which uses different punctuation. You may find further examples of specific references to different formats of item e.g. government publications using the Cite them Right guide or the Anglia Ruskin guide below, but be aware their formatting will differ from that recommended by the Department.

If you can't find the answer in either of the guides below, please speak to your Academic Liaison Librarian.

Additional examples

Other referencing styles

If your main degree subject requests a different referencing system e.g. APA 7th or Oxford, view the Citing References guide below for examples and help using your chosen referencing style.