Whenever you refer to another person's work in your own essay, dissertation or article you must acknowledge them and give full details of your source. You risk being accused of plagiarism if you fail to do so.
For general information on referencing, including an explanation of different citation systems, and guidance on citing specific types of publication, see our Citing references guide.
For help with citing specific types of publication contact your subject librarian (see below).
For advice on using references in your work, and how to use them to support your arguments, consult the guidance on the Study Advice website or make an appointment with them.
The Department of Languages and Cultures allows you to choose from 2 forms of referencing - in-text author-date referencing using the Harvard referencing style, or footnote references using a style such as Oxford or MHRA.
You may wish to use a footnote-style to provide a full reference at the bottom of the page, this can be useful when referencing primary sources. In some cases, an author-date referencing style such as Harvard can be helpful. You must not combine referencing styles within the same assignment. Choose a referencing style, and use this in your assignments consistently.
For more information on selecting reference styles please watch the Study Advice video below.
Also known as 'author-date' style. In Harvard style the in-text citation can be in brackets in the body of the text or in footnotes, and uses the author's surname and the date of publication, with the page number if it is a reference to a particular page. Full details are only listed in the bibliography or reference list.
Example for book:
In-text: (Shriver and Atkins, 1999)
In bibliography: Shriver, D.F. and Atkins, P.W. (1999). Inorganic chemistry. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Example for website:
In-text: (National Autistic Society, 2014)
In bibliography: National Autistic Society (2014) Recognising autism spectrum disorder, online at http://www.autism.org.uk/working-with/health/information-for-general-practitioners/recognising-autism-spectrum-disorder.aspx, accessed 23/07/14.
Some Departments use their own version of Harvard - check your course handbook or subject guide for details.
Sources for more information
MHRA referencing distinguishes between citations for primary texts (e.g. novels, poems etc) and secondary texts (e.g. critical works, additional information).
Most in-text citations are in footnotes. Full details (including editions and translation details if appropriate) should be included in the footnotes for the first mention of a text for both primary and secondary texts. After this, a shortened version can be used, either in brackets in the body of the text, or in footnotes. Whichever method you choose, be consistent.
Examples for primary and secondary texts:
In-text, first mention, primary text: (in footnote) Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (London: Faber, 1970) p. 172. All further references to this text are from this edition and are given parenthetically in the essay.
In-text, following mentions, primary text: (in body of text) (Dickinson, p.174) or (p.174)
In-text, first mention, secondary text: (in footnote) Brian Vickers, Francis Bacon and Renaissance Prose (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968) p. 49.
In-text, following mentions, secondary text: (in footnote) Vickers, p. 85.
In bibliography, primary and secondary texts: Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (London: Faber, 1970).
For more information (but always check your course handbook first):
When you do your dissertation you could consider using EndNote to manage your references. This bibliographic management package can be used to store references, and then insert the citation in your Word document, automatically building the bibliography for you in the correct style.
Find out more on our EndNote webpages:
For information on other options for electronic management of your references see our guide to Managing references: