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Languages and Cultures: Citing references

A guide to finding information in Languages and Cultures. Includes links to key resources and sources of help.

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Referencing non-English language material and translations

It's very likely that you'll need to reference non-English language material, and translations in your work.

Further help

For help with citing specific types of publication contact your subject librarian.

For advice on using references in your work, and how to use them to support your arguments, consult the guidance on the Study Advice website or make an appointment with them.

EndNote

EndNote logoWhen you do your dissertation you could consider using EndNote to manage your references. This bibliographic management package can be used to store references, and then insert the citation in your Word document, automatically building the bibliography for you in the correct style.

Find out more on our EndNote webpages:

For information on other options for electronic management of your references see our guide to Managing references:

Referencing guides

The Department of Languages and Cultures allows you to choose from 2 forms of referencing - author-date referencing using the Harvard referencing style, or footnote references using MHRA.

Whenever you refer to another person's work in your own essay, dissertation or article you must acknowledge them and give full details of your source. You risk being accused of plagiarism if you fail to do so.

You may wish to use a footnote-style to provide a full reference at the bottom of the page, this can be useful when referencing primary sources. In some cases, an author-date referencing style such as Harvard can be helpful. You must not combine referencing styles within the same assignment. Choose a referencing style, and use this in your assignments consistently.

If your main degree subject requests a different referencing system e.g. APA 7th or Oxford, please speak to your module convenor for your Language modules to let them know that you will be using an alternative referencing system.

How to select a referencing style?

Harvard referencing (author-date)

Also known as 'author-date' style. In Harvard style the in-text citation can be in brackets in the body of the text or in footnotes, and uses the author's surname and the date of publication, with the page number if it is a reference to a particular page. Full details are only listed in the bibliography or reference list.

Example for book:

In-text: (Shriver and Atkins, 1999)

In bibliography: Shriver, D.F. and Atkins, P.W. (1999). Inorganic chemistry. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Example for website:

In-text: (National Autistic Society, 2014)

In bibliography: National Autistic Society (2014) Recognising autism spectrum disorder, online at http://www.autism.org.uk/working-with/health/information-for-general-practitioners/recognising-autism-spectrum-disorder.aspx, accessed 23/07/14.

Where to find guidance on Harvard referencing

Note that because Harvard is a 'style' rather than a system or set of rules, the preferred punctuation and formatting of the text may differ between different publications or websites. We recommend that you use the Cite them Right guidance below as a reliable source of information. You may find further examples of specific references e.g. government publications using the Anglia Ruskin guide below. If you can't find the answer in either of the guides below, please speak to your Academic Liaison Librarian.

Additional examples

MHRA (footnotes)

MHRA referencing uses footnotes and distinguishes between citations for primary texts (e.g. novels, poems etc) and secondary texts (e.g. critical works, additional information).

Full details (including editions and translation details if appropriate) should be included in the footnotes for the first mention of a text for both primary and secondary texts. After this, a shortened version can be used, either in brackets in the body of the text, or in footnotes. Whichever method you choose, be consistent.

Examples for primary and secondary texts:

In-text, first mention, primary text: (in footnote) Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (London: Faber, 1970) p. 172. All further references to this text are from this edition and are given parenthetically in the essay.

In-text, following mentions, primary text: (in body of text) (Dickinson, p.174) or (p.174)

In-text, first mention, secondary text: (in footnote) Brian Vickers, Francis Bacon and Renaissance Prose (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968) p. 49.

In-text, following mentions, secondary text: (in footnote) Vickers, p. 85.

In bibliography, primary and secondary texts: Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (London: Faber, 1970).

Where to find guidance on MHRA referencing

We recommend that you use the MHRA Handbook guidance below as a reliable source of information. You may find further examples of specific references e.g. government publications using the 'Cite them Right' guide below. If you can't find the answer in either of the guides below, please speak to your Academic Liaison Librarian.

Other referencing styles

If your main degree subject requests a different referencing system e.g. APA 7th or Oxford, view the Citing References guide below for examples and help using your chosen referencing style.